Scottish Longitudinal Study
Development & Support Unit

Current Projects

Project Title:

Effects of mixed tenure on mixed tenure neighbourhood residents in Scotland 1991-2001 [EXTENDED]

Project Number:

2007_006

Researchers:

David Manley (University of St Andrews)
Maarten van Ham (University of St Andrews)
Joe Doherty (University of St Andrews)
Fiona Cox (University of St Andrews)

Start Date:

Approved on 24-05-2007

Summary:

The mixing of tenure types is becoming increasingly popular as a means through which policy makers are seeking to enhance the social well-being of residents in social housing. It is thought mono-tenure neighbourhoods, consisting of mainly social housing, can have a negative effect on residents’ social status and social well-being. The policy of mixing tenures at a neighbourhood level is thought to provide positive ‘examples’ to social sector residents helping enhance their social well-being and the reputation of a neighbourhood. The policy was explicitly adopted in the mid 1990s by the then Labour government as one of a raft of policy initiatives to renew and regenerate social housing in the UK. It has further been pursued by many of housing associations and housing charities, such as the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, in the creation and development of housing provision in the social sector. More recently, a Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG) report (Hills, 2007) specifically referenced mixing tenures as a corner stone policy in the future of social housing. However, the evidence basis for the efficacy of mixing tenures is, at best, fragmentary.

Much of the current research has tended to focus on small scale, qualitative, assessments of mixed tenure neighbourhoods. We know of only one large scale quantitative studies in the UK, and that used cross sectional Census data (see for example Doherty et al 2006). Elsewhere in Europe, however, longitudinal data has been used to test similar associations (Musterd and Andersson, 2005). This project aims to use the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) to explore the impact of mixing tenure on residents’ social well-being by tracking the neighbourhood location (mixed, non-mixed) and social welling of individuals in Scotland between 1991 and 2001. Our proposal is to set-up a multi-level model which will enable us to measure the impact of neighbourhood tenure mix, at a variety of scales (output area, datazone and ward) on individual social well being outcomes (employment, health and educational achievement).

It has been established that neighbourhoods associated with concentrations of social housing are often associated with high levels of household and individual deprivation. Present government policy as part of a solution to this problem, advocates the adoption of mixed tenure programmes at a neighbourhood level. However, there is little consistent evidence to support the efficacy of this policy. Our project is designed to test out the nature of the association between neighbourhood tenure mix and levels of deprivation. Using longitudinal data and a multilevel model this project will investigate the association between neighbourhood level tenure mix in Scotland on residents’ employment, health and educational achievement.

Extension (2015-2019)

Background

The mixing of tenure types is becoming a common practice as a means through which policy makers are seeking to enhance the social well-being of residents in social housing. It is thought mono-tenure neighbourhoods, consisting of mainly social housing, can have a negative effect on residents’ social status and social well-being. The policy of mixing tenures at a neighbourhood level is thought to provide positive ‘examples’ to social sector residents helping enhance their social well-being and the reputation of a neighbourhood. The policy was explicitly adopted in the mid 1990s by the then Labour government as one of a raft of policy initiatives to renew and regenerate social housing in the UK. It has further been pursued by many of housing associations and housing charities, such as the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, in the creation and development of housing provision in the social sector. More recently, a Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG) report (Hills, 2007) specifically referenced mixing tenures as a corner stone policy in the future of social housing. However, the evidence basis for the efficacy of mixing tenures is, at best, fragmentary. Much of the current research has tended to focus on small scale, qualitative, assessments of mixed tenure neighbourhoods. We know of only one large scale quantitative studies in the UK, and that used cross sectional Census data (see for example Doherty et al 2006). Elsewhere in Europe, however, longitudinal data has been used to test similar associations (Musterd and Andersson, 2005). This project aims to use the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) to explore the impact of mixing tenure on residents’ social well-being by tracking the neighbourhood location (mixed, non-mixed) and social welling of individuals in Scotland between 1991 and 2001. Our proposal is to set-up a multi-level model which will enable us to measure the impact of neighbourhood tenure mix, at a variety of scales (output area, and postcode sector) on individual social well being outcomes (employment and occupational mobility).

Aims

We will investigate the effects of neighbourhood characteristics on individual outcomes, such as labour market outcomes and educational outcomes. One of the challenges of neighbourhood effects research is to control for non-random neighbourhood choice of individuals as these selection effects bias the outcomes of models of neighbourhood effects. In our 2010 paper, which was based on SLS data, in the Journal of Economic Geography we modelled neighbourhood effects using the linked 1991 and 2001 censuses. Now the 2011 census data is available as linked data we would like to further investigate neighbourhood effects by including 1991-2001 neighbourhood characteristics and labour market transitions as explanations for 2001-2011 transitions in employment status and occupational mobility.

References:

Doherty, J., Graham, E., Boyle, P., Hiscock, R., and Manley D. (2006) Is Mixed Tenure Good for Social Well Being? Report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation


Hills, J. (2007) End and Means: the future roles of social housing in England. Department for Communities and Local Government.


Musterd, S. and Andersson, R (2005) Housing Mix, Social Mix, and Social Opportunities. Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 40, No. 6, 761-790


Van Ham, M., & Manley, D. (2009). The effect of neighbourhood housing tenure mix on labour market outcomes: a longitudinal investigation of neighbourhood effects. Journal of Economic Geography, 10, 257-282

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