Scottish Longitudinal Study
Development & Support Unit

Research Reports

To downsize or not? Household changes and housing consumption among older adults in Scotland

Graham, E., Fiori, F. & Feng, Z. (2015) CPC briefing paper, 30 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

What sort of housing moves are older adults making? And are they more likely to upsize or downsize? In what circumstances do older people downsize? Can we rely on the older generation moving out of bigger family homes to release the housing stock for younger families and relieve Scotland’s housing crisis? This study investigates the influence of household changes on the residential moves of older adults in Scotland. It compares the 1990s and the 2000s, and examines the moves of those aged 55 to 69 at the beginning of each decade.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full paper (PDF 1MB)
Output from project: 2013_011

Consequences, risk factors, and geography of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET)

Feng, Z., Everington, D., Ralston, K., Dibben, C., Raab, G. & Graham, E. (2015) Scottish Government. 26 October 2015. ISBN: 9781785447143 [SLS]

Other information:
Executive Summary:

Report contains key findings from a study into the consequences, risk factors and geographies of 16-19 year old young people not in education, employment or training (NEET), using the Scottish Longitudinal Study.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full report (PDF 869kB)
Output from project: 2013_005

Flexible ageing: new ways to measure the diverse experience of population aging in Scotland, using the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Spijker, J. & MacInnes, J. (2015) [SLS]

Other information:
End of Award Report

Extract:

...This project takes a sociodemographic approach to assess the challenges and opportunities of ageing populations in different contexts. Single-year of age and sex population estimate data and life expectancy data from the National Records of Scotland (NRS) (formerly General Register Office for Scotland (GROS)) ―for the period 1981-2011― and the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) ―related to the 1991 and 2001 censuses ― are used to construct new measures of population ageing based on years of remaining life expectancy rather than years since birth. In other words, we treat age in terms of years left until death rather than calendar age. While the latter is routinely used in the social sciences as well as in public policy (e.g. for the calculation of dependency ratios) because of the straightforward availability of data and their relevance to eligibility criteria set by public policy for e.g. pension entitlement and other social benefits, these measures do not consider the impact of one of the two main drivers of population ageing: improvements in survival, which has been responsible for large gains in life expectancy among older ages over the last half a century in the case of men and an additional several decades for women. While the NRS data allows for the analysis of a longer time period, the SLS data permits a more detailed analysis of the level of ageing, for instance by making estimating for specific sub-populations including different categories of (former) occupation, marital status, subjective rated health and level of area deprivation. The SLS data also allow us to estimate the size and composition of the elderly according to these census variables and produce dependency ratios of the older population to the employed rather than the usual working-age population in Scotland. The goal then is to see if these tell a different story from the conventional old-age dependency ratios.

Download output document: Full report (PDF 10MB)
Output from project: 2013_003

Consequences of young people not in education, employment or training – NEETs: a longitudinal analysis

Feng, Z. (2015) Scottish Longitudinal Study NEET Project - Research Findings Meeting, Edinburgh, 27 April 2015 [SLS]

Output from project: 2013_005

Risk factors of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET): Longitudinal analyses over a 10 year follow up period

Everington, D. (2015) Scottish Longitudinal Study NEET Project - Research Findings Meeting, Edinburgh, 27 April 2015 [SLS]

Output from project: 2013_005

Who gets on to the property ladder in Scotland? – Changing transitions to home ownership among young adults over two decades

Graham, E., Fiori, F. & Feng, Z. (2015) CPC briefing paper, 26 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Young adults in Scotland, as elsewhere in the UK, are now experiencing greater difficulties getting onto the property ladder than they did in the 1990s. This study examines the characteristics and family background of those who left the parental home and became homeowners between 2001 and 2011. It then compares their experiences with the experiences of young adults in the previous decade. The findings indicate that the advantage associated with higher education has increased but so has the influence of family background, whereas securing professional employment is less of an advantage for getting onto the property than it was in the past. Thus there is a risk of inherited inequalities becoming entrenched and further reducing the social mobility of young adults in the future.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full paper (PDF 1MB)
Output from project: 2013_011

Occupational Mobility and Living in Deprived Neighbourhoods: Housing Tenure Differences in ‘Neighbourhood Effects’

van Ham, M. & Manley, D. (2013) IZA Discussion Paper 7815, IZA Institute for the Study of Labor. 1 December 2013. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The literature on neighbourhood effects suggests that the lack of social mobility of some groups has a spatial dimension. It is thought that those living in the most deprived neighbourhoods are the least likely to achieve upward mobility because of a range of negative neighbourhood effects. Most studies investigating such effects only identify correlations between individual outcomes and their residential environment and do not take into account that selection into neighbourhoods is a non-random mechanism. This paper investigates occupational mobility between 1991 and 2001 for those who were employed in Scotland in 1991 by using unique longitudinal data from Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). We add to the existing literature by investigating neighbourhood effects on occupational mobility separately for social renters, private renters and home owners. We find that ‘neighbourhood effects’ are strongest for home owners, which is an unexpected finding. We argue that the correlation between characteristics of the residential environment and occupational mobility can be explained by selection effects: homeowners with the least resources, who are least likely to experience upward mobility, are also most likely to sort into the most deprived neighbourhoods. Social housing tenants experience less selective sorting across neighbourhoods as other than market forces are responsible for the neighbourhood sorting mechanism.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Discussion Paper (PDF 192KB)
Output from project: 2007_006

Socio-economic costs of bereavement in Scotland

Birrell, J., Corden, A., Macduff, C., Newsom, C., Petrie, D., Schut, H., Skår, S., Stephen, A., Tseng, F., Wang, S. & Wilson, S. (2013) Main Study Report, 1 March 2013. [SLS]

Other information:
Executive Summary:

The Socio-Economic Costs of Bereavement in Scotland (SECOB) research study was funded by the Scottish Government Health Directorates in late 2010 as part of ongoing work to inform national policy on bereavement and bereavement care practice. The project aimed to: a) articulate the likely nature and scope of the impact of bereavement on social and economic aspects of life for Scottish citizens as evidenced in relevant literature; b) seek to estimate the socio-economic costs of bereavement in an emergent sub-set of key aspects, and c) develop methodological approaches that will enhance capacity for large-scale research into the socio-economic impact of bereavement.

Literature scoping and review identified a range of relevant areas of potential impact, and an analytical model was devised to help understand their potential relationships. New research was undertaken to explore impacts in more depth in the areas of health, income and employment. Analysis of data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study found that spousal bereavement is associated not only with increased mortality but also with longer hospital stays. Our research indicates that this increase in hospital stay is a hidden and latent impact of bereavement which translates into a recurring additional annual cost for NHS Scotland of around £20 million. The cost of consultations in primary care that are specifically labelled as bereavement-related was estimated to be around £2.2 million annually. However, we suggest that this is likely to be a considerable under-estimation that recognises only the tip of the iceberg. Findings from the British Household Panel Survey, a UK wide dataset, showed that the bereaved were significantly less likely to be employed in the year of bereavement, and two years after. However, the BHPS data also showed no significant differences in income between the bereaved and matched controls in the 10 years pre and post bereavement. Through use of innovative methods, the study has yielded useful insights into some of the socio-economic impacts of bereavement in Scotland, but more research is clearly needed to obtain more comprehensive understandings.

Available online: Main Study Report,
Download output document: Full report (PDF 362kB)

The Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile of Return Migrants and Long-Term In-Migrants in Scotland: Evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

McCollum, D. (2011) Scottish Government Social Research Report. Scottish Government: Edinburgh, 14 February 2011. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Population growth is a key contributor to, and consequence of, a more vibrant society and dynamic economy. However, Scotland’s overall population is ageing, whilst its population of working age is forecast to decline. A modest rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) means that Scotland is heavily reliant on in-migration as a means to achieving its Population Target. However, little is currently known about the nature of migration flows into Scotland or the characteristics of the individuals involved. This research makes use of the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) to explore the nature of some return and other migration flows to Scotland by investigating the characteristics of those who constitute them.

Available online: Scottish Government Social Research Report.
Download output document: Full Report (PDF 393KB)
Output from project: 2009_003

The Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile of Return Migrants and Long-Term In-Migrants in Scotland: Evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

McCollum, D. (2011) AQMeNtion Newsletter Ed 5 - April 2011. 1 April 2011. [SLS]

Other information:
Extract:

Population growth is a key contributor to, and consequence of, a more vibrant society and dynamic economy. However, Scotland's overall population is ageing, whilst its population of working age is forecast to decline. A modest rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) means that Scotland is heavily reliant on in-migration as a means to achieving its Population Target. However, little is currently known about the nature of migration flows into Scotland or the characteristics of the individuals involved. This research makes use of the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) to explore the nature of some return and other migration flows to Scotland by investigating the characteristics of those who constitute them. Three groups are explored: return migrants, long-term in-migrants from the rest of the UK and long-term in-migrants from abroad.

Paper available courtesy of AQMeN

Download output document: Full Paper (PDF 31KB)
Output from project: 2009_003

Social mixing as a cure for negative neighbourhood effects: Evidence based policy or urban myth?

Manley, D., van Ham, M. & Doherty, J. (2011) IZA Discussion Paper 5634. 1 April 2011. IZA Institute for the Study of Labor. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

In this paper, we review the evidence base for social mixing in neighbourhoods, which is used as a strategy to tackle assumed negative neighbourhood effects. We discuss in detail the theoretical links between neighbourhood characteristics, and outcomes of individuals living in concentrations of poverty. Through this we identify the theoretical case for promoting socially mixed communities. We then review the empirical evidence base, focusing on outcomes of the American poverty deconcentration initiatives including the Moving to Opportunity and HOPE VI programs. We identify that the evidence from these programs is at best inconclusive. Turning to the European experience we identify problems associated with using observational data to assess individual outcomes in relation to their neighbourhood context. We conclude by suggesting that the evidence base for social mixing is far from robust, and that many of the current empirical papers suffer from serious analytical shortcomings. Ultimately, the process of creating more socially mixed neighbourhoods is unlikely to create more opportunities in life for the original residents. Socially mixing neighbourhoods through tenure mixing will only change the population composition of neighbourhoods, increasing average incomes because more affluent (and employed) residents will move into the owner occupied housing replacing social housing.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full Paper (PDF 91KB)
Output from project: 2007_006

Assessing socio-economic inequalities in mortality and other health outcomes at the Scottish national level (incorporating a comparison between mortality in Scotland and England)

Boyle, P. (2010) Pilot study commissioned by Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy. [SLS][ONS LS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page

Output from project: 2009_004 (SLS), 30117 (ONS LS)

Neighbourhoods and the creation, stability and success of mixed ethnic unions

Feng, Z., Boyle, P., van Ham, M. & Raab, G. (2010) UPTAP Research Findings, UPTAP: Leeds. 1 July 2010. [SLS][ONS LS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page

Abstract:

The number of mixed-ethnic unions has increased substantially in recent years (Coleman, 2004) with profound effects on the ethnic composition of the population, including the creation of new minority groups of mixed origin.

Previous research on mixed-ethnic unions in the UK uses mainly cross-sectional data from the 1991 Census 1% Household Samples of Anonymised Records (SAR) or the UK Labour Force Surveys (LFS) (e.g. Ballard, 1997; Berrington, 1996; Coleman, 1985; 2004). Most of these studies focussed on the growth of mixed-ethnic unions and none has used longitudinal data to explore changes in the geographies of mixed-ethnic couples. In particular, no study has examined whether living in mixed-ethnic neighbourhoods makes it more likely for people to enter mixed-ethnic unions, or whether those in mixed-ethnic unions are more likely to move into mixed-ethnic neighbourhoods. Nor has any study examined the stability of mixed-ethnic unions and how this may be influenced by geographical context. This study is therefore the first to explore the local geography of mixed-ethnic unions in Britain and to examine the associations of neighbourhoods and mixed-ethnic partnerships using longitudinal data.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 139KB)
Output from project: 2007_016 (SLS), 30092 (ONS LS)

Neighbourhoods and the creation, stability and success of mixed ethnic unions

Feng, Z., van Ham, M., Boyle, P. & Raab, G. (2010) Full Research Project, ESRC End of Award Report, RES-163-25-0045. Swindon: ESRC. [SLS][ONS LS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page

Extract:

The geographical study of mixed-ethnic couples is not new, although most of this research has been conducted in the US (Peach, 1980, Wong, 1999). This study builds on a long history of research on residential segregation, but extends this work to explore how mixed-ethnic couples contribute to changing ethnic geographies. Limited research has examined mixed-ethnic unions in the UK, mainly using cross-sectional data from the 1991 Census 1% Household Samples of Anonymised Records (SAR) or the UK Labour Force Surveys (LFS) (e.g. Ballard 1997; Berrington 1996; Coleman 1985, 2004; Data Management and Analysis Group Update 2005; Holdsworth and Dale 1997; Johnston, et al., 2006, Muttarak, 2004). The 1994 Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities was also used to investigate mixed-ethnic unions (Muttarak, 2003). Most of these studies focussed on basic trends in the growth of mixed-ethnic unions. A notable exception is Muttarak’s (2004) study which investigated the socio-economic determinants of mixed-unions using LFS data. However, none of these published studies have used longitudinal data to explore changes in the geographies of mixed-ethnic couples. In particular, no study has examined whether living in mixed-ethnic neighbourhoods makes it more likely for people to enter mixed-ethnic unions, or whether those in mixed-ethnic unions are more likely to move into mixed-ethnic neighbourhoods. Nor has any study examined the stability of mixed-ethnic unions and how this may be influenced by geographical context, or whether mixed-ethnic households are more likely to live in, or move to, higher-status neighbourhoods. This study is therefore the first to explore the local geography of mixed-ethnic unions in Britain and to examine the associations of neighbourhoods and mixed-ethnic partnerships using longitudinal data.

Available online: Full Research Project, ESRC End of Award Report, RES-163-25-0045.
Download output document: Full Report (PDF 935KB)
Output from project: 2007_016 (SLS), 30092 (ONS LS)

Neighbourhood effects, housing tenure, and individual employment outcomes

Manley, D. & van Ham, M. (2010) IZA Discussion Paper 5271. IZA Institute for the Study of Labor. 1 October 2010. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This paper investigates whether individuals living in neighbourhoods with high concentrations of unemployment are less likely to enter work if they are unemployed and more likely to lose their job if they are employed. The main challenge in the neighbourhood effects literature is the identification of causal neighbourhood effects. A particular problem is that individuals do not randomly select neighbourhoods to live in: the selection process is often linked to the labour market situation and potential of individuals. To get more insight in neighbourhood effects we run separate models for social renters and owner occupiers. This study uses anonymised individual level longitudinal data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study for 1991 and 2001 with multiple neighbourhood scales operationalised. Based on the results we argue that any apparent neighbourhoods effects that were present in models of the full population are at least partly an artefact of different neighbourhood selection mechanisms. The conclusions of the paper call for a more nuanced treatment of neighbourhood effects and the development of models that seek to include neighbourhood selection from the outset.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 176KB)
Output from project: 2007_006

Assessing socio-economic inequalities in mortality and other health outcomes at the Scottish national level

Popham, F. & Boyle, P. (2010) Final report for the Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy, SCPHRP. [SLS]

Other information:
Extract:

Scotland has very poor health for a European country highlighted by it ranking lowest for life expectancy at birth for women and second lowest for men in a recent comparative review. Importantly, Scotland has not always held such a relatively poor position. Within Scotland there are also large inequalities in mortality that have been widening in recent years. However, the comparative position of Scotland in terms of inequalities in health is not clear as it has not been included in European comparative projects aimed at comparing inequalities in mortality, health and health behaviours across the continent. The most recent comparative analysis was conducted using data from the 1990s, with census data from the start of the decade being linked to subsequent death records for the comparative mortality analysis. With the introduction of the Scottish Longitudinal Study, Scotland now has a dataset linking 1991 (and 2001) census records to mortality. The main aim of this analysis was then to replicate for Scotland the analysis of the most recent European work by Mackenbach et al. to give a comparative perspective on Scotland’s inequalities. Additionally, we updated the Scottish mortality analysis from the 2001 census and also looked at self rated health and health behaviours using the 2003 Scottish Health Survey to replicate the analysis presented in Mackenbach et al. for self rated health and health behaviours. ...

Download output document: Full Report (PDF 416KB)
Output from project: 2009_004

Social mobility : is there an advantage in being English in Scotland?

van Ham, M., Manley, D., Findlay, A. & Feitjen, P. (2010) IZA Discussion Paper 4797. IZA Institute for the Study of Labor. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This paper seeks to unpick the complex effects of migration, country of birth, and place of residence in Scotland on individual success in the labour market. We pay specific attention to the labour force experience of English-born residents in Scotland, whom the cross sectional literature suggests are more likely to achieve high occupational status than the Scottish born residents. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study – linking individual records from the 1991 and 2001 Censuses – and logistic regressions we show that those living in, or moving to Edinburgh, and those born in England and Wales are the most likely to experience upward occupational mobility.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full Paper (PDF 133KB)
Output from project: 2007_005

Tenure Change in Scotland: a comparison between 1991-2001 and 2001-2006

Freeke, J. (2009) Glasgow City Council/Scottish Government, 13 May 2009. [SLS]

Other information:
Extract:

Since 2008, Scottish Councils have been required to undertake a Housing Needs and Demand Assessment (HNDA) for Development Plans and Local Housing Strategies. An important component of the HNDA is an assessment of future numbers of households, as well as of housing needs and requirements for affordable housing. This involves, amongst others, a projection of likely changes in the tenure distribution for future households.

In order to assess likely future change, it is important to understand recent change. This paper seeks to make a contribution to this by comparing tenure change in the post-Census years 2001-2006 with tenure change in the inter-Census period 1991-2001. ...

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full Report (PDF 131KB)
Output from project: 2007_009

Developing integrated analyses of the England & Wales, Scottish and Northern Ireland Census Longitudinal Studies: health and mortality as a case study

Grundy, E., O'Reilly, D.P.J. & Boyle, P. (2009) Full Research Report, ESRC End of Award Report, RES-348-25-0013. Swindon: ESRC. [SLS][ONS LS][NILS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Extract:

In the UK there are currently three separate record linkage studies which include census and vital registration data covering England and Wales (the ONS LS), Scotland (Scottish LS) and Northern Ireland (NILS). They are managed in three separate statistical offices and the data are subject to confidentiality restrictions which means that they are not released to researchers’ desktops for analysis. To date there has been little thought about how integrated projects might be undertaken using these three studies. This is an important issue as there are significant demographic and health differences between these constituent parts of the UK which are under-explored. The overall aim of this project was to encourage and facilitate use of the ONS LS, SLS and NILS together by considering relevant practical, procedural and methodological issues that could undermine cross-study analysis and addressing and documenting difficulties and ways around them. To do this, an original research project was undertaken which drew on information from all three. This is an exemplar of how to undertake UK analyses of the three sources in combination and deal with the various statistical (different sampling fractions etc) procedural/technical (different variable names etc) and other challenges posed. ...

Available online: Full Research Report, ESRC End of Award Report, RES-348-25-0013.
Download output document: ESRC Report (PDF 189KB)
Output from project: 2008_009 (SLS), 30086 (ONS LS), 028 (NILS)

The Effect of Neighbourhood Housing Tenure Mix on Labour Market Outcomes: A Longitudinal Perspective

van Ham, M. & Manley, D. (2009) IZA Discussion Paper 4094. IZA Institute for the Study of Labor. 1 March 2009. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of different levels of neighbourhood housing tenure mix on transitions from unemployment to employment and the probability of staying in employment for those with a job. We used individual level data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), a 5.3% sample of the Scottish population, covering a 10 year period. We found a strong negative correlation between living in deprived neighbourhoods and labour market outcomes (getting or keeping a job). We found a small, but significant, positive correlation between living in mixed tenure (40-80% social housing) streets and transitions from unemployment to employment. In the conclusion we discuss the extent to which we think these results can be interpreted as ‘neighbourhood effects’ or selection effects.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full Paper (PDF 361KB)
Output from project: 2007_006

Explore the variables held in the SLS data dictionary.

Recent News

Upcoming Events

Events feed unavailable

Latest SLS Tweets