Scottish Longitudinal Study
Development & Support Unit

Conference Papers & Posters

Working Class Kids and School Qualifications: An Investigation of Scottish Education Using Longitudinal and Administrative Social Science Data

Gayle, V. (2017) Understanding Society Scientific Conference 2017, University of Essex, UK, 11 - 13 July 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

There has been a long running negative association between social class and outcomes in school examinations. Pupils from less advantaged social classes have generally had poorer performance. In this paper we investigate contemporary social class effects using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study and newly available linked administrative data. The resounding finding is that working class pupils have less favourable outcomes in school qualifications. The effects of social class can be observed net of gender, parental education and household type. Parental education plays an important role in filial (i.e. their child’s) educational outcomes but there is no interaction with parental social class. A more subtle finding is that the outcomes of pupils with parents in lower supervisory and technical occupations share close similarities with children of parents from both semi-routine and routine occupations. This is important because sociologists have previously theorised parents in lower supervisory and technical occupations as a blue collar intermediate class, but in this analysis their children’s educational outcomes are more similar to pupils from the wage-earning working class. We observe some occupation-level differences within social classes. For example the children of teachers have good outcomes whereas children with parents in catering and hospitality occupations perform worse than counterparts in the same social class. This work is innovative because it analyses administrative records linked to an existing longitudinal dataset. The findings are important as they provide up-to-date evidence that can directly inform policy debates in the areas of education and social mobility.

Available online: https://www.understandingsociety.ac.uk/scientific-conference-2017/papers/166
Output from project: 2014_005

Exploring the ‘Scottish Excess’ with eDatashield and linkage of an adjusted Index of Multiple Deprivation

Ball, W., Kyle, R. & Atherton, I. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS][ONS LS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Background Scotland has worse health outcomes compared to England and Wales. Not all of this variation can be explained by deprivation and it may explain less now than in the past. However, much of this analysis has relied on outdated measures of deprivation. Directly comparing data from the constituent countries of the United Kingdom is also difficult due to differences in the way Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) are constructed in each country. This study addresses the methodological limitation of current research by linking routinely collected data from England/Wales and Scotland with an adjusted UK Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) to conduct joint analysis with an up to date and directly comparable measure of deprivation.

Methods An adjusted UK IMD has been developed using two comparably measured domains from the English and Scottish IMDs. This will be linked to individual level census data from both the ONS Longitudinal Study (ONS LS) and the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) to provide a consistent measure of area deprivation. Confidentiality and disclosure control prevent combined analysis of these longitudinal datasets. However, the eDatashield process enables pooled analysis by passing summary statistics between studies to ensure that the datasets are comparable and analysis is equivalent to working with individual level data.

Descriptive and correlational analyses will explore the presence and extent of health inequalities within and between Scottish, English and Welsh populations. If a 'Scottish excess' is discerned, logistic regression will be used to establish how much of this variation can be accounted for by deprivation, adjusting for individual and household socio-economic indicators.

Discussion Pooled analysis of individual level census data from England, Wales and Scotland linked to an adjusted UK IMD provides a novel approach to exploring inequalities across the UK. This paper sets out the study and shares preliminary findings.


SLS project page
ONS LS project page

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2014_003 (SLS), 1005034 (ONS LS)

Creating a postcode history from medical sources for longitudinal analyses

Everington, D., Huang, Z. & Feng, Z. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) is a large-scale linkage study created using data from administrative and statistical sources. These include: census data from 1991 onwards; vital events data (births, deaths, marriages); NHS Central Register data (migration into or out of Scotland); and education data (Schools Census and SQA data).

There are many advantages to using these data: they are a large, representative sample of the Scottish population with a low attrition rate. The SLS includes a range of variables describing demographic, economic, health, education, cultural, housing, social and ecological data. Our sample is further linked to ISD health data including cancer registrations, hospital admissions etc. One of the main disadvantages of this study is that although the vital event, education and health data can be regularly updated, the Census variables are only known at the 10 year time points. Trying to determine cause and effect without full histories is clearly more difficult.

To address this, NHS Scotland have provided postcode data obtained from GP registrations and other health records since 2000. Although the data will not be provided to users in their fine geographical details, as far as we know, this is the first time that these data are available for longitudinal analyses on a small area scale. These data will be of particular interest to researchers wishing to study migration. They will also allow area effects such as deprivation and urban/rural classification to be looked at over time.

This presentation will describe the characteristics, difficulties and processing of these data. The data are validated by comparison to the enumeration postcodes in 2001 and 2011 which are highly accurate. Future analyses will investigate how the match rate varies by other characteristics such as age, gender, economic activity and geographical area.

Available online: Link

A sibling study of whether maternal exposure to different types of natural space is related to birth weight

Richardson, E., Shortt, N., Pearce, J. & Mitchell, R. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Background
Birth weight is an important determinant of health across the life course. Maternal exposure to natural space has been linked to higher birth weight, but stronger evidence of a causal link is needed. We use a quasi-experimental sibling study design to investigate if change in the mother's exposure to natural space between births was related to birth weight in urban Scotland.

Methods
Amount (% area) of total natural space, total accessible (public) natural space, parks, woodlands and open water within 100m of the mother's postcode was calculated for eligible births (n=40,194; 1991-2010) in the Scottish Longitudinal Study (a semi-random 5.3% sample of the Scottish population). Associations between natural space and birth weight were estimated, using ordinary least squares and fixed effects models.

Results
Birth weight was associated with the total amount of natural space around the mother's home (+8.2g for interquartile range increase), but was unrelated to specific types of natural space. This whole-sample relationship disappeared in the sibling analysis, indicating residual confounding. The sibling models showed effects for total natural space with births to women who already had children (+20.1g), and to those with an intermediate level of education (+14.1g).

Conclusion
The importance of total natural space for birth weight suggests benefits can be experienced near to as well as within natural space. Ensuring expectant mothers have good access to high quality neighbourhood natural space has the potential to improve the infant's start in life, and consequently their health trajectory over the life course.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2015_002

How can we better understand internal migration?

Ernsten, A., McCollum, D., Feng, Z., Everington, D. & Huang, Z. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Understanding migration behaviour is an essential part of understanding population change. Internal migration, although at least as important as international migration from academic and policy perspectives, has been less researched.

Recently the census based Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) has been extended to include postcode data from NHS Scotland. The SLS is a 5.3% sample of the Scottish population and is rich in attributes but the census is only repeated once every ten years. The data provided from NHS Scotland, however, covers very limited attributes but is rich timewise. NHS-data at postcode level is recently available through the SLS and this gives a unique and new opportunity to develop these data for longitudinal research.

The linkage of these data sources creates the potential to, for the first time, undertake an in-depth analysis of the mobility patterns of a sizeable cohort of individuals within Scotland, at detailed geographies and over a considerable period of time (2001-2011).

This paper will discuss the combination of health administrative data linked to the census based Scottish Longitudinal Study, which creates a new and unique way to study internal migration in Scotland. In our paper we evaluate the quality of this new data. By means of logistic regressions, we evaluated what movers and types of moves are under and over represented when combining these data sources. Finally, potential solutions to improve under/over representation in those groups are presented.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2016_003

The processes of poverty decentralisation: evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study 1991-2011

Bailey, N., Livingston, M. & van Gent, W. (2017) ISA RC43 Conference, 'Unreal estate: Rethinking housing, class and identity', City University Hong Kong, 19 - 21 June 2017 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2016 _006

Long term illness and reported mental health conditions during recession: exploring evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Curtis, S., Pearce, J. & Dibben, C. (2017) 17th International Medical Geography Symposium (IMGS), University of Angers, France, 2 - 7 July 2017 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2015_015

Is spatial mobility on the wane? An analysis using an innovative longitudinal approach

McCollum, D., Ernsten, A., Sabater, A., Findlay, A., Nightingale, G., Finney, N. & Feng, Z. (2017) RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2017, Royal Geographical Society, London, 29 August - 1 September 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This paper engages with Fielding’s (2012) classic three layers of structure as determining factors in inter-regional levels of migration. On the one hand mobility responds to changes in the business cycle. On the other it is also a product of longer term ‘deep’ economic and cultural structural processes, such as economic restructuring and changing social norms. This research investigates these issues using an innovative longitudinal approach. The recent incorporation of postcode data from NHS Scotland into the Scottish Longitudinal Study, a 5.3% sample of the Scottish Census, presents researchers with the opportunity to investigate the characteristics of both moves and movers over a significant time period (2001-2015). The analysis finds that, overall Scottish internal migration rates have decreased between 2001 and 2015, especially since the 2008 period of economic downturn. This speaks to Fielding’s (2012) ideas about how internal migration responds to recessions, and also relates to Cooke (2011) and Champion and Shuttleworth’s (2016) claims about a deeper cultural shift towards secular rootedness. Our data however, allows us to paint a more detailed picture, finding for example that places classified as cosmopolitan are losing population to more rural areas.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2016_003

Is internal migration on the wane? An innovative study of new residential mobilities in Scotland

McCollum, D., Ernsten, A., Findlay, A., Nightingale, G., Feng, Z., Finney, N. & Sabater, A. (2017) 9th International Conference on Population Geographies (ICPG 2017), University of Washington, Seattle, USA, 29 June - 1 July 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The progression of workers along the occupational hierarchy across the course of their careers has long been a concern of policymakers and social scientists alike. Using the census-based Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) dataset, this research examines individual and place based determinants of occupational mobility, and their relationship to spatial mobility. The originality of the paper relates to the importance of workplace location, rather than residential locations, on occupational mobility, and in the questioning of the idea that spatial mobility accelerates occupational mobility. The findings also indicate that skill level and employment in ‘knowledge intensive’ sectors are key determinants of career progression. Urban career escalator effects are found to be particularly evident for higher skilled workers. The findings point to the importance of spatial sophistication and gender and sectoral sensitivity in understandings of occupational mobility.

Available online: https://depts.washington.edu/icpg2017/program_abstracts.html
Output from project: 2016_003

Moving to move up? Disentangling the link between spatial and occupational mobility

Liu, Y., McCollum, D., Findlay, A., Feng, Z. & Nightingale, G. (2017) 9th International Conference on Population Geographies (ICPG 2017), University of Washington, Seattle, USA, 29 June - 1 July 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The progression of workers along the occupational hierarchy across the course of their careers has long been a concern of policymakers and social scientists alike. Using the census-based Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) dataset, this research examines individual and place based determinants of occupational mobility, and their relationship to spatial mobility. The originality of the paper relates to the importance of workplace location, rather than residential locations, on occupational mobility, and in the questioning of the idea that spatial mobility accelerates occupational mobility. The findings also indicate that skill level and employment in ‘knowledge intensive’ sectors are key determinants of career progression. Urban career escalator effects are found to be particularly evident for higher skilled workers. The findings point to the importance of spatial sophistication and gender and sectoral sensitivity in understandings of occupational mobility.

Available online: https://depts.washington.edu/icpg2017/program_abstracts.html
Output from project: 2016_003

Residential mobility during childhood and later risks of psychiatric morbidity, violent criminality and premature death: a national register-based cohort study

Webb & Forrest, L. (2017) Society for Social Medicine Annual Scientific Meeting Manchester, UK, 6 - 8 September 2017 [SLS]

Available online: https://socsocmed.org.uk/events/annual-scientific-meeting/
Output from project: 2015_003

Measuring change in local labour markets over the course of a recession and their relation to health: An example using the Scottish Longitudinal Study and data for local areas in Scotland

Curtis, S. (2017) Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, Boston, USA, 5 - 9 April 2017 [SLS]

Output from project: 2015_015

Forests, health and inequalities in Scotland: a longitudinal analysis using linked administrative data

Thomson, J., Pearce, J., Shortt, N. & Ward Thompson, C. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Studies suggest that living near forests is linked to reduced stress, improved mood and enhanced quality of life. Evidence also suggests that having better access to forests may be particularly beneficial to those of low socioeconomic position. Therefore forests may have a role in reducing health inequalities. This study examined associations between forests and health in Scotland over a 20-year-period. In particular the project investigated whether changes in individual's access to forests were associated with changes in health status; and whether people who had lived near forests throughout life had better mental health in later life. The study also explored whether associations varied by social group. Data for all forests in Scotland were created. These were linked to the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) which provided data on 113,171 people living in Scotland for three time points: 1991, 2001 and 2011. Administrative records for the SLS members including the Prescribing Information system and Mental Health Inpatient and Outpatient data sets were also linked. Outcome measures included having a long term limiting illness, receiving hospital treatment for a mental health issue and being prescribed anti-depressant or anxiolytic medication. Preliminary findings showed that people living 250m-1km from a forest were significantly more likely to have a long term limiting illness compared to those living closest (<250m) to a forest. When stratified by area-level income deprivation, this relationship was only significant for those in the 2nd most deprived group. This initial findings from this study show that the health benefits associated with forests in Scotland are likely to be uneven across the population.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2015_013

Long term illness and reported mental health conditions during recession: exploring evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Curtis, S., Pearce, J. & Dibben, C. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This paper reports on a project which is underway to explore how local labour market conditions relate to reported mental illness and self-reported mental health conditions. The project aims to contribute to a growing body of research which seeks to relate changes in local socio-economic conditions over the lifecourse of places with changes in health over the lifecourse of individuals. The Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) provides a valuable resource for work of this type, since it relates to a large (5.3%), representative sample of the Scottish population, and is especially interesting for the work reported here in that it includes 2011 census data on self-reported mental illness, as well as reported long term illness data that were also collected in other parts of the UK. This paper reports on part of the work which has classified local authorities according to trends in employment rates and hourly pay 2006-2011, as indicators of the economic impact of recession, and on how this is being linked to the SLS and analysed in relation to the reported health outcomes of interest. Analysis of growth trajectories of these economic indicators for local authorities in Scotland (derived from data published by NOMIS) demonstrates that the recession has tended to reinforce economic inequalities between some groups of local authorities and this project will examine whether there is evidence that this increasing inequality among places was significant for health inequalities.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2015_015

The ‘art’ of cohort and study construction in administrative datasets: examples from Scotland

Williamson, L. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
2011_002
2013_005
2013_008

Video available on conference website - 'Friday Morning Session 5B'

Abstract:

Using specific research case studies I will give an overview as to how as researchers we can have a great research idea, grounded in the relevant literature, but there are problems translating it into a robust research design. Assuming that the area/question cannot be reliably researched using small but rich sample surveys I will present ways in which routine admin data can help, along with the additional challenges of creating the correct cohort to address the research question.

The examples are from the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) which links together routinely collected administrative data for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population (about 270,000 people). It includes a wealth of information from the censuses (1991-2011), vital events registrations (ie births and deaths), and education data from 2007 onwards. The SLS with appropriate permissions can also be linked to health data such as cancer registry and hospital admission data from the NHS in Scotland. The size and scope of the SLS make it an unparalleled resource for analysing a range of socio-economic, demographic and health questions.

I will demonstrate how despite the large number of study members owing to the constraints on various admin data being available centrally for Scotland in systems (ie health data and education data) cohorts have to be carefully considered in order to research outcomes (events/results). Examples include: (1) life-course events for a cohort of SLS women born 1959-1965 followed up from 1991, (2) setting up 2 complex cohorts of SLS members and children of the SLS (COTS) born from 1991 onwards to investigate child development including social status information from family background, and (3) constructing relevant cohort samples to investigate those not in employment, education or training (NEET).

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2011_002, 2013_005, 2013_008

Why do escalator regions increase upward social mobility? Linkage of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 with Scottish Longitudinal Study data and Census data

Forrest, L., Dibben, C., Feng, Z., Deary, I. & Popham, F. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Introduction
The escalator hypothesis suggests that regions which offer positive labour market opportunities may enhance the social mobility of those who move there. Individuals who relocate to escalator regions may do better than others because of the employment opportunities they are offered, or due to particular characteristics of these geographically-mobile individuals. We were interested in exploring the relationship between geographical and social mobility and the factors that may be important for upward mobility.

Methods
The 1947 Scottish Mental Survey (a 1936 birth cohort with age 11 cognitive ability test scores), linked with the Scottish Longitudinal Study, and census data, was used to investigate the inter-generational social and geographical mobility of this cohort, and how this relates to their cognitive ability and other factors. We examined how spatial mobility impacts on social mobility, particularly examining whether large metropolitan regions of Scotland, such as Edinburgh, may operate as escalator regions, and why this might be, using linear and logistic regression models.

Results
Higher childhood cognitive ability and achieved education level were significantly positively associated with upward mobility from childhood to age 55. Those who were geographically mobile, particularly those who moved both in and out of Edinburgh, had significantly higher cognitive ability compared to those who did not move. Movers to Edinburgh were more likely to be upwardly mobile than those who experienced any other geographical trajectory.

Discussion
Previous research on escalator regions has speculated as to whether it is the place itself or the attributes of those who move there that were important for upward mobility. As those who move to Edinburgh are more likely to be upwardly mobile than those of similar cognitive ability who move elsewhere this would suggest that Edinburgh acts as an escalator region, with improved job opportunities available for those who relocate.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2015_003

Health consequences of young people not in employment, education or training: analysis of mortality risk in Scotland

Feng, Z., Everington, D., Ralston, K. & Dibben, C. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Young people not in employment, education or training (NEET) are a serious policy concern in many European countries. The Europe 2020 flagship initiative Youth on the Move specifies a number of programmes that aim to reduce the number of NEET young people and re-engage them into education and labour market. Although young people not in employment, education or training have been identified as one of the most vulnerable groups since the 1990s, little is known about the long-term effect of NEET experiences, especially the health consequences.

This paper investigates whether being NEET is associated with a higher risk of death. We used the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), which collates information from the 1991, 2001, and 2011 censuses as well as from vital events, for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population. Linked health data such as hospital admissions are also available.

We followed around 10,000 young people who were aged 16-19 in 1991 up to 2010. We explored whether NEET young people in 1991 displayed a higher risk of mortality in the 20 years of the follow-up period. Both descriptive and modelling approaches were used in our analysis. Cox models were fitted to predict the risk of death for NEET young people compared to that of non-NEETs. Confounders included individual socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and local area characteristics. Modelling results showed that being NEET in 1991 was associated with an elevated risk of mortality. The elevated risk remained even when the models were fitted separately by gender. Policy intervention is necessary in assisting NEET young people to re-engage in education or employment.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_005

Childhood cognitive function and later-life economic activity: Linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 to administrative data

Iveson, M., Deary, I.J. & Dibben, C. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Video available on the conference website - 'Friday after lunch Session 6B'

Abstract:

As the population ages, and individuals are expected to work and function for longer, it is increasingly important to understand what contributes to economic activity in later life. Recent work has shown that mid-life unemployment risk can be predicted by early-life circumstances, particularly childhood socioeconomic status and childhood cognitive ability. However, very little work has been done to investigate the contribution of early-life factors to unemployment risk in the latter-part of the working life, in which the rates of long-term unemployment are particularly high. The proposed study investigates the association between early-life factors (childhood cognitive ability and socioeconomic status) and the risk of unemployment in later-life by linking historical data from the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 to Scottish Census data from 1991, 2001 and 2011. Around 1800 linked records will be taken from the Scottish Longitudinal Study. In addition to investigating cognitive and social factors, the risk of unemployment will also be investigated in terms of the type of occupation or industry to account for the physical demands of the workplace and the changing trends in industrial employment. Understanding the factors which contribute to economic activity around retirement age may aid the development of interventions designed to promote productivity and wellbeing in older-age.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2017_001

Inequalities in school leavers’ labour market outcomes:  do school subject choices matter?

Iannelli, C. & Duta, A. (2017) UK Administrative Data Research Network Annual Research Conference, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 1 - 2 June 2017 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Despite a large international literature on the effect of vocational and general education on school-to-work transition, relatively little is known about the role of having studied specific subjects in explaining inequalities in young people's labour market outcomes. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the extent to which subject choices mediate social background and gender differences in early labour market integration of young people who left education early, either at the end of compulsory schooling or at the end of secondary school. We use data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study which is a large-scale linkage study created using data from administrative and statistical sources. These include: census data from 1991 onwards; vital events data (births, deaths, marriages); NHS Central Register data (gives information on migration into or out of Scotland); and education data (including Schools Census and SQA data). Our extract contains information about individuals' ascriptive characteristics (gender and family background) from 2001 Census data, their activity status from 2011 Census data, and their educational attainment (with detailed information about subjects studied and grades achieved). We analyse gender and social class differences in school leavers' employment status and type of occupation entered and the extent to which these differences can be explained by school subject choices (and attainment). The results show little gender differences but strong parental background differences in young people's labour market outcomes. Only a few subjects were associated with a reduction in the chances of being unemployed/inactive. Overall grades were found to be more important in explaining social background differences among lower-secondary leavers while curriculum more important in explaining the same differences among upper-secondary leavers.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_013

Harnessing secondary data to enhance nurse education: Approaches and applications from the Nurses’ Lives Research Programme

Kyle, R. & Atherton, I. (2016) NETNEP 2016, 6th International Nurse Education Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 3 - 6 April 2016 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2014_003

Exploring Ear’oles Education: An investigation of the school-level educational outcomes of ‘working class’ pupils in contemporary Scotland

Playford, C., Gayle, V., Connelly, R. & Murray, S. (2016) Society for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Studies Conference, University of Bamberg, Germany, 5 - 8 October 2016 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Poster (PDF 934kB)
Output from project: 2014_005

Rediscovering inequalities in school-level educational outcomes: An in-depth investigation of ‘working class’ pupils in contemporary Scotland

Playford, C., Gayle, V., Connelly, R. & Murray, S. (2016) AQMeN International Conference, University of Edinburgh, 26 - 27 October 2016 [SLS]

Download output document: Presentation slides (PPT 2MB)
Output from project: 2014_005

The development of synthetic data sets to expand and transform use of disclosive data from the ONS Longitudinal Study

Shelton, N. & Dennett, A. (2016) IASSIST 2016, Bergen, Norway, 31 May - 3 June 2016 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Investigating parental socioeconomic position, in utero growth and risk of child development disorders using linked administrative data

Playford, C., Dibben, C., Williamson, L. & Huang, Z. (2016) Administrative Data Research Network Annual Conference 2016, Friends House, London, UK. 3 June 2016 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 2MB)
Output from project: 2011_001

A longitudinal analysis of health effects of NEET experiences in Scotland, 2001-2011

Feng, Z., Ralston, K., Everington, D. & Dibben, C. (2016) Administrative Data Research Network Annual Conference 2016, Friends House, London, UK. 3 June 2016 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_005

An Introduction to the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Carsley, S., Williamson, L. & Cox, F. (2016) British Society of Population Studies (BSPS), Univ of Winchester, UK, 12 - 14 September 2016 [SLS]

Other information:
Poster presentation

Abstract:

This poster will introduce the SLS and the datasets, the application process for researchers interested in using the SLS and outline research examples. The Longitudinal Studies Centre – Scotland (LSCS) was established in 2001 and hosts the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). This study links together routinely collected administrative data for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population (about 270,000 people). It currently includes a wealth of information from the censuses starting in 1991, vital events registrations (births, deaths and marriages), Scottish education data, and with appropriate permissions can be linked to NHS health data including cancer registry and hospital admission data. The size and scope of the SLS make it an unparalleled resource in Scotland for analysing a range of socio-economic, demographic and health questions. Additionally, the longitudinal nature of the SLS is particularly valuable, allowing an exploration of causality in a way that cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time does not. In this way, the SLS can provide insights into the health and social status of the Scottish population and, crucially, how it changes over time. The 2016 BSPS conference presents an excellent opportunity to highlight the data that is available and will help researchers decide whether the SLS is an appropriate resource for their research.

Available online: Link

Do young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) experience long term occupational scarring? A longitudinal analysis over 20 years of follow up

Ralston, K., Feng, Z., Everington, D. & Dibben, C. (2016) British Society of Population Studies (BSPS), Univ of Winchester, UK, 12 - 14 September 2016 [SLS]

Other information:
Poster presentation

Abstract:

NEET is a contested concept. However, it is consistently used by policy makers and shown in research to be associated with negative outcomes. In this paper we use the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) to examine whether NEET status is associated with subsequent occupational scarring. The SLS provides a 5.3% sample of Scotland, based on the censuses of 1991, 2001 and 2011. We model occupational position, using CAMSIS, controlling for the influence of sex, limiting long term illness, educational attainment and geographical deprivation. We find the NEET categorization to be a marker of a subsequent negative outcome at the aggregate level. This appears to be redolent of a Matthew effect, whereby disadvantage accumulates to the already disadvantaged. Our results also show that negative NEET effects are variable when stratifying by educational attainment and are different for men and women. These findings confirm that there are negative effects on occupational position associated with prior NEET status but that outcomes are heterogeneous depending on levels of education and gender.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_005

An exploration of educational outcomes for children with disabilities

Cox, F. & Marshall, A. (2016) British Society of Population Studies (BSPS), Univ of Winchester, UK, 12 - 14 September 2016 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Evidence from cross-sectional and panel studies, qualitative research and reports drawn primarily from snapshot Government statistics indicate that children with disabilities face particular barriers to achieving success within and beyond education. However to date little or no longitudinal research has been published investigating the causal relationship between disability and education and employment outcomes. This lack has been noted by WHO in their World Report on Disability (2011) which repeatedly calls for more longitudinal research in order to “allow researchers and policy-makers to understand better the dynamics of disability.” Education is often key to future participation in the labour market; the DWP ‘Fulfilling Potential’ report goes so far as to say that “for those who are born with an impairment or a health condition, education and other early life experiences influence the whole of their life chances.” A lack of robust measures and classification issues make it difficult to accurately estimate the numbers of children with a disability, however DWP statistics suggest that around 7% of children in the UK are covered by the Equality Act (approx. 0.9M children). The inclusion of more detailed health questions in the 2011 Scottish Census, along with the Scottish Longitudinal Study’s linkage to education data from ScotXed has created a unique opportunity to conduct research in this area. This paper presents part of a wider project and investigates the influence of childhood disability – and other possible confounding factors such as type of disability, parental disability and socioeconomic status – on educational attainment.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2015_006

Living circumstances and health of people with learning disabilities

Miler, J., Jacobs, M. & Cooper, S. (2016) 16th Seattle Club Conference on Research in Intellectual Disabilities, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK, 12 - 13 December 2016 [SLS]

Other information:
Poster presentation

Abstract:

Background:
People with learning disabilities experience poorer physical and mental health than the general population. This study investigates whether living conditions and their changes over time are different for people with learning disabilities compared to the general population, and whether these are related to general health status.

Method:
Secondary data analysis using the Scottish Longitudinal Study, which links information obtained on 5% of the population at Scotland’s Census 2011 with their information at Census 2001 and Census 1991. Matched-control design (age, sex) with 4 matches per person with learning disabilities. Learning disabilities and general health status were identified from responses to the questions at Census 2011. The study recently commenced; this poster describes the aims and methods in more detail.

Results:
993 individuals had learning disabilities and a record in both Scotland’s Census 2011 and at least one of Census 2001 and Census 1991. 136 (13.7%) lived in communal establishments in 2011. 03/735 (14.0%) people with learning disabilities were living in communal establishments in 1991 and 114/923 (12.4%) in 2001. Further details will be presented on living circumstances, and its relationship to health.

Conclusion:
It is important to identify the factors that impact on health that might be improved. The 20 year longitudinal study design allows residential types and movement to be tracked and linked to health status.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2015_014

The devil’s in the demography: Comparison and change in the remote and rural nursing workforce in Scotland between 2001 and 2011 using representative longitudinal data

Atherton, I. (2016) Rethinking Remote: Innovative Solutions in Remote Health Care Conference, Inverness, UK, 23 - 24 May 2016 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2014_003

CALLS Hub

Findlay, A., Cox, F., Dibben, C., Duke-Williams, O. (2015) British Society for Population Studies, Univ of Leeds, UK, 7 - 9 September 2015 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
Poster Presentation
Abstract:

The Census & Administrative data LongitudinaL Studies Hub (CALLS Hub) has been commissioned by the ESRC to support, promote and harmonise the work of the three LS Research Support Units (CeLSIUS, NILS-RSU, SLS-DSU), with the aim of providing a more streamlined experience for users. The three UK census Longitudinal Studies provide a unique and powerful research resource for a range of academic disciplines. They also form a powerful source of research evidence for policy-makers, practitioners and third sector bodies. CALLS Hub exists to help researchers find the information and resources they need in a straightforward way, and to promote the work and impact of the RSU’s to a wider audience. By bringing together the three studies, we can also highlight the potential benefits and possibilities of using more than one LS, either to allow regional comparisons or to build a national population. The aims of CALLS Hub are:

  • To enhance the research potential of the LSs by co-ordinating the development of new resources and methodologies.
  • To enhance and streamline the user experience of obtaining information about the LSs and applying to use them for research.
  • To increase academic impact by developing communication strategies to raise awareness of the LSs, promoting their outputs and facilitating their impact strategies.
  • To increase the economic and societal impact of the LSs by working together with key external stakeholders to develop research projects meeting their evidence needs.
  • To facilitate and encourage the use of multiple LSs for UK-wide research.

Available online: Link

School subject choice and university entrance

Iannelli, C. (2015) Widening Access to Scottish Higher Education: Getting in and Getting on Moray House School of Education, Edinburgh, 1 December 2015 [SLS]

Other information:

Video recording of talk (starts at 4hr 31min)

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 774kB)
Output from project: 2013_013

Household changes and housing consumption at older ages in Scotland: a comparison of two decades

Fiori, F., Graham, E. & Feng, Z. (2015) AISP conference, Giornate di Studio sulla Popolazione 2015, University of Palermo, Italy, 4 - 6 February 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The past few decades have seen significant demographic, social and economic changes that have resulted in increased diversity across individual life courses and housing careers. The study of residential relocation and housing conditions at older ages – in particular following changes in individual situations and household composition – is thus an important focus for research. Litwak and Longino’s (1987) identified three typologies of moves for older people: amenity-related or retirement moves; disability or health-related moves; and moves to institutions. Studies from the UK have supported this conceptualisation but Scotland has never been the focus of their empirical investigations. The aim of our study is to address this research gap. We investigate housing transitions in later adulthood in Scotland, covering the period when older adults are entering retirement and going through important changes in their households’ composition. The study addresses two main research questions: What are the key determinants of older adults’ residential moves? What are the key determinants of housing adjustments (downsizing/upsizing) among older individuals who move? We use data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) for two decades (1991-2001 and 2001-2011) and adopt a repeated cross-sectional design to examine the circumstances of older people at the beginning and end of each period. The sample for each decade comprises individuals aged 55 to 69 and living in private households at the start of the decade. Separately for each decade, we observe whether individuals had changed their address (based on postcode of residence) by the end of the period. We use logistic regression to assess the relationship between the likelihood of a residential move and socio-demographic and housing characteristics measured at the beginning of the period, and household changes and other life events occurring throughout the period. Then, and only for individuals who changed address between two consecutive censuses, we observe whether the move implied any adjustment of their housing size. A multinomial logistic regression is used to contrast downsizing and upsizing to the base category same size, and to assess the influence of individual and family conditions (and their change over time) on the likelihood and the direction of housing adjustments. Both for residential mobility and housing adjustments, the models are extended to include contextual variables at the local authority level within a multilevel framework.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_011

Outcomes of NEET, what happens to young people in Scotland who are not in education, employment and training? Longitudinal analyses over a 20 year follow up period

Ralston, K., Everington, D., Feng, Z. & Dibben, C. (2015) Journal of Youth Studies Conference, Copenhagen 30 March - 1 April 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Background: Young people not in education employment or training (NEET) are the subject of policy concern in several countries. The NEET classification is open to criticism as many NEETs transition into employment. This analysis follows young people 16-19 years old in 1991 over a 20 year follow up period to understand how NEET status relates to health, education and occupational outcomes.

Data: We use the Scottish Longitudinal Study which provides a 5.3% sample of Scotland and is based around the Censuses of 1991, 2001 and 2011. Routinely collected administrative health data and education data are also linked to the SLS for these analyses. This allows us to test whether NEET status is associated with worse health outcomes, lower educational attainment and occupational position.

Methods: We apply descriptive and modelling approaches, including logistic regression. We use economic, educational and health outcomes. We control for confounders such as sex, limiting long term illness, prior economic activity, prior educational attainment and geographical deprivation. We use NSSEC and CAMSIS to measure occupational position.

Findings: 18% of those NEET in 1991 are not economically active at both the 2001 or 2011 Census. We find the NEET categorization to be a strong marker of subsequent negative outcomes, such as a higher odds of admission to hospital following self-harm OR, 5.8 (CI 3.6-9.6) and higher odds of having no qualifications, OR 5.9 (CI 4.8-7.4). Of those NEET who do transition to work there is strong evidence of a scarring effect.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_005

Risk factors of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET): Longitudinal analyses over a 10 year follow up period

Everington, D., Ralston, K., Feng, Z. & Dibben, C. (2015) Journal of Youth Studies Conference, Copenhagen 31 March - 1 April 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Background: The high level of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) has been an important issue in Scotland for over a decade. This analysis follows people who were 6-9 years old at the time of the 1991 Census to the 2001 Census when they were 16-19 years old. This allows us to test whether NEET status in 2001 is associated with individual characteristics and childhood living conditions measured in 1991 and the highest qualification, local area characteristics and whether they had had a teenage pregnancy in 2001.

Data: We use the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) which provides a 5.3% sample of Scotland and is based around the Censuses of 1991, 2001 and 2011. We link Census data for family members and vital event data to these records.

Methods: We apply logistic regression, reporting odds ratios and confidence intervals.

Finding: Many factors were found to be associated with the likelihood of being NEET. The most important of these were teenage pregnancy and having no qualifications. Nearly half of the NEETs had one of these attributes. Living in an area where there was a high level of NEETs was also important. Significant childhood factors were living in rented accommodation, living in a household where either all economically active persons were unemployed or there were no economically active persons and having more than one sibling.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_005

Know Thyself: Utilising routinely collected data to gain insight into the social determinants of nurses’ health

Kyle, R., Dibben, C. & Atherton, I. (2015) RCN Annual International Nursing Research Conference and Exhibition 2015, Nottingham, 20 - 22 April 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The seminal Whitehall Studies have for decades provided some of the most compelling evidence around the deleterious effects of inequalities on health (Marmot and Brunner, 2005). These cohort studies followed British civil servants over time to ascertain the implications of social circumstances on health. This paper reports new research drawing on routinely collected data about nurses that similarly informs the nursing profession about the health and wellbeing of its members and also provides insights into wider questions around the social determinants of health.

Two of our recent studies are drawn on as a basis for critical reflection. The first used a sample of 13,483 people drawn from a routinely collected cross-sectional health survey of the Scottish population. Analysis estimated prevalence of nurses who were overweight and obese and then compared and contrasted the resulting proportion with other occupational groups. It found that those in the general population were significantly less likely to be overweight compared to nurses (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.45 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.62-0.97). The second study used a sample of 4,529 nurses from anonymised linked decennial census and mortality data. Analysis was designed to ascertain if a ‘Glasgow Effect’ (Walsh et al. 2008) was evident amongst nurses in Scotland. It found nurses in the West of Scotland had significantly higher mortality compared to the rest of Scotland (OR 1.62 95% CI 1.22-2.17).

Our findings from these two studies are striking because nurses are a very health literate sub-section of the population. Hence, in line with results from the Whitehall Studies, we provide startling new evidence about the influence of social circumstances and working conditions on health and wellbeing. We conclude by arguing that our compelling findings demonstrate the value of innovative analysis using routinely collected data and have far-reaching research, policy and educational implications.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2014_003

Social origin differences in subject choices in secondary education – New evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Klein, M. & Iannelli, I. (2015) British Sociological Association 2015 Annual Conference, 'Societies in Transition: Progression or Regression?', Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, 15 - 17 April 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

In this paper we assess the impact of student social origin on continuing school after compulsory education and choosing different subjects in upper secondary education (S5/S6) in Scotland. We further consider to what extent subject choice and performance until the end of compulsory education (S4) mediates continuation decisions and subject choice in upper secondary education. In Scotland (and more generally in the UK) access to prestigious universities and higher-status occupations not only depends on educational attainment but is strongly linked to having achieved qualifications in specific subjects. Parents from higher social origin can provide better support to their children when making educational decisions, particularly subject choice, than parents from lower social origin since they are more familiar with the educational system, the requirements of higher education entrance and subsequent labour market opportunities. We expect strong social inequalities in subject choices in secondary education that, in turn, have consequences for later decisions on HE entrance and labour market outcomes. With a few exceptions, social mobility and educational research largely neglected the role of secondary school subjects in the reproduction of social inequalities. The paper benefits from a large new data source for Scotland, the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), which links 2001 Census data to administrative school data (2007-2010). These unique data provide detailed information on parental background characteristics, household and neighbourhood information, school attendance and school attainment at various stages (including attainment in different subjects at secondary level).

Available online: https://www.britsoc.co.uk/media/23561/Programme%20full.pdf
Output from project: 2013_013

Education and the Life Course: Exploring Pattern of Subject Specific Performance in School Attainment in Scotland

Playford, C., Gayle, V., Connelly, R. & Murray, S. (2015) Society for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Studies Conference, Dublin, Ireland, 18 - 21 October 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The Scottish school education system roughly mirrors the system in the rest of the UK but the qualifications that young people study for are markedly different. Although the Scottish school qualifications system has recently undergone radical change, Standard Grades have been the main qualifications undertaken by Scottish pupils when they reach the end of compulsory schooling for a number of years, and are the mainfocus of this paper. These qualifications are important because they mark the first branching point of the educational life-course in Scotland. The study of socioeconomic inequalities in school level attainment is well established, however school-level educational attainment in Scotland has been under-researched due to the lack of suitable data resources. In this paper we exploit a recent linkage of administrative data from the Scottish Qualifications Authority with the Scottish Longitudinal Study. Pupils undertaking Standard Grades studied a mixture of ‘core’ and ‘optional’ subjects from a wide diet of subject choices. Each Standard Grade subject was awarded an individual grade ranging from 1–7. Therefore, Scottish pupils have highly individualised patterns of Standard Grade results and there is no single agreed upon overall measure of a pupil’s Standard Grade attainment. In recent work examining school attainment in England and Wales we have demonstrated that there are substantively important patterns of subject level attainment which are occluded when general overall measures are constructed and analysed. In this paper we examine the relationship between parental socioeconomic circumstances and detailed subject-specific patterns of standard grade performance using latent variable techniques. The results of this research will facilitate a better understanding of standard grade attainment in Scotland. We will also make methodological considerations by comparing alternative latent variable approaches.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 3MB)
Output from project: 2014_005

Understanding the impact of fertility history on health in later life

Williamson, L. & Dibben, C. (2015) European Association for Population Studies workshop, London, UK. September 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Poster presentation

Output from project: 2011_002

Understanding the impact of fertility history on health outcomes in later life

Williamson, L. (2015) Society for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Studies Conference, Dublin, Ireland, 19 - 21 October 2015 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2011_002

Introduction to the SLS

Carsley, S. & Williamson, L. (2015) Society for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Studies Conference, Dublin, Ireland, 19 - 21 October 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This poster will introduce the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) and the datasets, the application process for researchers interested in using the SLS and outline research examples. The Longitudinal Studies Centre – Scotland (LSCS) was established in 2001 and hosts the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). This study links together routinely collected administrative data for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population (about 270,000 people). It currently includes a wealth of information from the censuses starting in 1991, vital events registrations (births, deaths and marriages), Scottish education data, and with appropriate permissions can be linked to NHS health data including cancer registry and hospital admission data. The size and scope of the SLS make it an unparalleled resource in Scotland for analysing a range of socio-economic, demographic and health questions. Additionally, the longitudinal nature of the SLS is particularly valuable, allowing an exploration of causality in a way that cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time does not. In this way, the SLS can provide insights into the health and social status of the Scottish population and, crucially, how it changes over time.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Conference program (PDF 487kB)

Do young people not in education employment and training (NEET) experience long term occupational scarring? A longitudinal analysis over 20 years of follow up

Ralston, K., Everington, D., Feng, Z. & Dibben, C. (2015) Social Stratification Research Seminar, Milan, Italy, 7 - 8 September 2015 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_005

Social inequalities and changing transitions to home ownership among young adults in Scotland over two decades

Graham, E., Fiori, F. & Feng, Z. (2015) Workshop on UK Population Change and Housing Across the Life Course, University of St Andrews, UK, 16 - 17 June 2015 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 996KB)
Output from project: 2013_011

Maternal residence in urban, rural and island communities and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Scotland

Clemens, T. (2015) 16th International Medical Geography Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, 6 - 10 July 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Adverse birth outcomes, which are important determinants of a number of later life outcomes, have been shown to be associated with both social and environmental characteristics of the mother’s area of residence. However the degree to which pregnancy outcomes vary between urban, rural and island areas remains relatively understudied. Existing evidence from North America shows that rural areas have been associated with poorer outcomes at birth mostly due to the increased levels of poverty and poorer access to services in these areas. The few studies conducted in Europe on the other hand seem to show a protective rural effect for birth outcomes, perhaps via a reduced stress type pathway, while very few studies have looked at island communities specifically. In this study we use routinely collected maternity inpatient records linked to census data and other environmental datasets to examine whether birth weight varies between urban and rural and island and mainland communities in Scotland whilst adjusting for possible confounding by socio-economic status (SES) and characteristics of the physical environment. We highlight two main findings; firstly that maternal residence in an island community has a large and significant protective effect on birth weight independently of effects due to urban and rural environment and other factors and, secondly, that this effect appears to be related to the ‘remoteness’ of island communities. Potential explanations for the findings will be explored and discussed during the presentation.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2007_011

The creation of an administrative data based 1936 Birth Cohort Study

Huang, Z., Dibben, C., Kirby, G., Deary, I., Popham, F. & Connelly, F. (2015) The Farr Institute International Conference 2015, University of St Andrews, UK, 26 - 28 August 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The objective of this project is to create a new 1936 Birth Cohort Study from routine and administrative data. It is structured around the existing Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). We took the SLS birth date sample from the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (SMS1947) and linked it to the 1939 Register, the National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR) and the SLS. The outcome is a powerful life-course dataset containing information from childhood to old age.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Poster (1MB)
Output from project: 2015_003

The role of education systems in reproducing social inequalities in educational achievement – Evidence from Scotland

Klein, M. & Iannelli, I. (2015) effe symposium: Improving social equity through education, 4 - 5 May 2015 [SLS]

Output from project: 2013_013

Understanding the impact of fertility history on health outcomes in later life

Williamson, L. & Dibben, C. (2015) 2015 Census Conference 'Census Applications: Using the UK’s population census data', Univ of Manchester, UK, 16 - 17 July 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The aim of this research, involving data linkage and health outcomes, is to gain a full understanding of the impact of both fertility histories and childlessness on health outcomes mid-life. The research draws on and extends work on reproductive histories and life-course outcomes. We aim to extend this area of research specifically for Scotland based on Scottish Census data (1991-2011), namely the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) linked to health data from the NHS Scottish Morbidity Records (SMR).

Where the census health measures, including the new 2011 Census health condition question on mental health, are the research outcomes and the explanatory information is from Census socio-economic data captured along with the SMR02 Maternity Inpatient and Day Case dataset and the SMR04 Mental Health Inpatient and Day Case dataset.

The SLS allows follow-up to mid-life for specific female SLS birth cohorts from the 1991 Census. From preliminary modelling we find high birth parity to be an important factor in relation to self-reported mental health conditions. For limiting long-term illness birth parity is initially important but not once socio-economic variables are controlled for. Preliminary modelling also highlights that relationship status, single, married or cohabiting, to be important over that of legal marital status as recorded at Census.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2008_012

A longitudinal analysis of health effects of NEET experiences in Scotland, 2001-2011

Feng, Z., Everington, D., Ralston, K. & Dibben, C. (2015) 2015 Census Conference 'Census Applications: Using the UK’s population census data', Univ of Manchester, UK, 16 - 17 July 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This paper investigates whether experiences of young people who are not in employment, education or training (NEET) are associated with adverse long-term outcomes in health. We used the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), which collates information from the 1991, 2001, and 2011 censuses as well as from vital events, for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population. Linked health data such as hospital admissions and prescribing in general practice are also available. We followed around 10,000 young people who were aged 16-19 in 2001 up to 2011. We explored whether NEET young people in 2001 displayed higher risks of poor physical and mental health in the follow-up period. Poor physical health is measured by less than good health, and limiting long term illness from the 2011 census and poor mental health is measured by prescription of anti-depressant and anti-anxiety medicine. We used descriptive and modelling approaches in our analysis.

Covariates include a number of individual socioeconomic characteristics and local area characteristics in the models. Our research found that around 6% of the cohort members have reported less than good health, and 7% reported limiting long term illness, while around 30% have been prescribed with anti-depressant and anti-anxiety drugs. The NEET status in 2001 appears to be associated with poor general health and limiting long term illness: young NEET people were over 50% more likely to report poor health and limiting long term illness. Also the NEET experiences are associated with poor mental health with the odds of poor mental health is over 60% higher among NEET people than the odds among non-NEET people. The effect of NEET experiences appears to be consistent for men and for women. Policy intervention is necessary in assisting NEET young people to re-engage in education or employment.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_005

NEETs in Scotland: a longitudinal analysis of long-term health effects of the NEET experience

Feng, Z., Everington, D., Ralston, K. & Dibben, C. (2015) Understanding Society Scientific Conference, Univ of Essex, UK, 21 - 23 July 2015 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This paper investigates whether experiences of young people who are not in employment, education or training (NEET) are associated with adverse long-term outcomes in health. We used the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), which collates information from the 1991, 2001, and 2011 censuses as well as from vital events, for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population. Linked health data such as hospital admissions and prescribing in general practice are also available. We followed around 10000 young people who were aged 16-19 in 1991 up to 2011. We explored whether NEET young people in 1991 displayed higher risks of poor physical and mental health in the follow-up period. Poor physical health is measured by any admission into hospital and poor mental health is measured by prescription of anti-depressant and anti-anxiety medication. We used descriptive and modelling approaches in our analysis. Covariates include a number of individual socio-economic characteristics and local area characteristics in the models. Our research found that over 40% of the cohort members have been admitted into hospital, while over 30% have been prescribed with anti-depressant and anti-anxiety drugs. The NEET status in 1991 is found to be associated with hospitalisation with adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.28 (95% Confidence Intervals (CIs): 1.10 – 1.49). Also the NEET experiences are associated with poor mental health with OR of 1.67 (95% CI: 1.43 – 1.96). Policy intervention is necessary in assisting NEET young people to re-engage in education or employment.

Available online: https://www.understandingsociety.ac.uk/scientific-conference-2015
Output from project: 2013_005

Using the Scottish Longitudinal Survey to analyse social inequalities in school subject choice

Iannelli, C. (2015) Quantitative Research in Education Conference, Univ of Sheffield, UK, 7 October 2015 [SLS]

Available online: https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.498688!/file/Programme.pdf
Output from project: 2013_013

Social origin and school subject choice in Scotland

Iannelli, C. (2015) ESRC Festival of Social Science AQMeN event: Social inequalities in higher education: why and how national institutional factors matter, Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, UK, 11 November 2015 [SLS]

Available online: https://www.aqmen.ac.uk/events/Nov15/FOSS
Output from project: 2013_013

To downsize or not? Housing adjustment at older ages in Scotland since 1991

Fiori, F., Graham, E. & Feng, Z. (2014) BSPS Annual Conference 2014, Univ of Winchester, 8 - 10 September 2014. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

In the past decades, the proportion of older households in Scotland has increased. At the same time, social and economic changes have prompted greater diversity in individual life courses and housing careers. This paper investigates the housing consumption of older individuals and couples, and the extent to which this is adjusted in response to changes in household composition. In particular, it examines who is and who is not downsizing and whether moves to smaller housing units have increased since the economic downturn of 2008. Data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study are used to examine the housing adjustments of older adults who change residential address between censuses, as well as the characteristics of those who do not move. Repeated cross-sectional analyses compare two decades (1991-2001 and 2001-2011) to observe decadal changes in residential mobility and immobility, and whether housing adjustment – especially downsizing – has become more or less common. The samples consist of older adults aged 55-69 at the beginning of each decade. Covariates includes individual socio-economic characteristics and housing characteristics at the beginning of the decade and changes in health, work and family composition across the decade. Preliminary findings indicate significant differences by socio-economic status in the likelihood of a residential move and in the direction of housing adjustment, with some older individuals upsizing while others downsize. Changes in individual and family conditions across the decade also play an important role.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_011

Assessing the potential impact of markers of social support on levels of ‘excess’ mortality in Scotland and Glasgow compared to elsewhere in the UK

Ralston, K., Walsh, D., Feng, Z. & Dibben, C. (2014) BSPS Annual Conference 2014, Univ of Winchester, 8 - 10 September 2014. [SLS][ONS LS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page

Abstract:

Scotland has higher rates of mortality compared to the rest of the UK. Also premature mortality in Glasgow is 30% higher than in Liverpool and Manchester, with deaths at all ages around 15% higher. This excess is observed across almost all age groups, both males and females. In recent analyses reciprocity, trust, volunteering and religious affiliation including proxies for social capital of religious participation has been shown to be an important catalyst for social connectivity among some populations, and has been shown to be associated with lower mortality. This research combines the ONS Longitudinal Study of England and Wales with the Scottish Longitudinal Study to examine whether levels of ‘excess’ mortality in Scotland (compared to E&W) and Glasgow (compared to Liverpool/Manchester) are modified by the existence of social supports in peoples lives such as through practicing religion and living arrangements. We look at all-cause mortality by various age ranges including all age and 35 to 74. Poisson regressions are used along with a pioneering application of eDataSHIELD to undertake analysis on two restricted access datasets. The findings show that indicators of social support moderate mortality but that mortality in Scotland remains above that of England and Wales.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_002 (SLS), 30159 (ONS LS)

The long-term impacts of NEET experiences on health: evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Feng, Z., Graham, E., Ralston, K., Raab, G. & Dibben, C. (2014) BSPS Annual Conference 2014, Univ of Winchester, 8 - 10 September 2014. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Young people who are not in employment, education or training (NEET) have drawn consistent attention from policy makers in the last decades. A spell of NEET experiences may impact on socioeconomic and health outcomes in later life. Theoretically there have been debates on the consequences of NEET experiences and so far a number of empirical studies have yielded mixed results. This paper aims to investigate whether experiences of being NEET have long term adverse effects on health outcomes in the Scottish context between 1991 and 2011. We used the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), which is a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population. We followed young people who were aged 16-19 in 1991 to 2001 and then to 2011 when they were aged 26-29 and 36-39 respectively. We explored whether young people who had NEET experiences in 1991 displayed higher risks of poor physical and mental health ten and twenty years later. The outcomes include the self-reported from the censuses and objective ones from NHS patient records such as hospitalisation and prescription. We used descriptive and modelling approaches in our analysis. Covariates include a number of individual socioeconomic characteristics and local area characteristics in the models. Our research found that the NEET status in 1991 appears to be associated with negative health outcomes in 2001 and 2011. However the association varies with outcomes and by gender.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_005

Generating synthetic microdata to widen access to sensitive data sets: method, software and empirical examples

Nowok, N., Raab, G. & Dibben, C. (2014) BSPS Annual Conference 2014, Univ of Winchester, 8 - 10 September 2014. [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page

Abstract:

In many contexts, confidentiality constraints severely restrict access to unique and valuable microdata. The UK Longitudinal Studies linking census and other health and administrative data for individuals and their immediate families across several decades provide a good example which also motivated this study. In order to allow academics and other users to carry out their research more freely, synthetic version of a bespoke data set can be generated and provided to users with fewer access restrictions. Synthetic data mimic the real data and preserve the relationships between variables and transitions over time, but they do not include any real individuals. The basic idea of data synthesis is to replace genuine data with values sampled from conditional probability distributions. We develop a sequential algorithm for producing synthetic data set and implement it in R software (freely available R package called ‘synthpop’). The users have a choice between different parametric and non-parametric synthesising models. The latter includes classification and regression trees (CART) models. As a validation of the method we compare statistical inference based on real and synthetic data for research projects using the SLS data (including 2011 Census data). In addition, we compare the relative performance of parametric and non-parametric synthesising models.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

An Introduction to the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Carsley, S. (2014) BSPS Annual Conference 2014, Univ of Winchester, 8 - 10 September 2014. [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This poster will introduce the SLS and the datasets, the application process for researchers interested in using the SLS and outline research examples.

The Longitudinal Studies Centre – Scotland (LSCS) was established in 2001 and hosts the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). This study links together routinely collected administrative data for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population (about 270,000 people). It currently includes a wealth of information from the censuses starting in 1991, vital events registrations (births, deaths and marriages), Scottish education data, and with appropriate permissions can be linked to NHS health data including cancer registry and hospital admission data.

The size and scope of the SLS make it an unparalleled resource in Scotland for analysing a range of socio-economic, demographic and health questions. Additionally, the longitudinal nature of the SLS is particularly valuable, allowing an exploration of causality in a way that cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time does not. In this way, the SLS can provide insights into the health and social status of the Scottish population and, crucially, how it changes over time.

The 2014 BSPS conference presents a timely opportunity to highlight new data that will be available as a result of the inclusion of the 2011 Census data and will help researchers decide whether the SLS is an appropriate resource for their research.

Available online: Link

Census and Administrative Microdata Linkage in the UK, the USA, and Canada: Prospects, Problems and Solutions?

Shuttleworth, I., Cooke, T., Shelton, N., Duke-Williams, O., Dibben, C. & Spielman, S. (2014) AAG Annual Meeting 2014, Tampa, Florida, USA. 21 - 25 April 2014 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
Session description:

The availability to researchers of individual-level linked Census and administrative data in the UK and the USA looks set to increase. In the UK, there are already well-established longitudinal studies in England & Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland based on the linkage of Census and administrative data. Moreover, it is highly likely that linked non-Census administrative data will also grow in importance. It is, for example, probable that the national statistical agencies of the UK will in future make much more use of linked non-Census administrative data to count the population and that these data will also become more open to academic researchers and policymakers via an ESRC large-scale investment in Administrative Data Research Centres. In the USA, there is a series of Census Research Data Centers whilst in Canada there is a Research Data Centres network. The availability of linked data offers opportunities since it allows researchers to ask and to answer new questions. However, it also poses challenges. These include building the capacity to deal with large-scale complex datasets, understanding the nature and accuracy of non-Census administrative data, and working in ways that guarantee the security of these often highly sensitive and confidential datasets. This session seeks to discuss and to explore these and similar issues by bringing together UK and North American users of linked data, and also those involved in providing access to the data. The aim is to share experiences cross-nationally, and to evaluate the current situation and future prospects for data linkage in the UK and North America.

Available online: Link

Assessing the potential impact of markers of social support on levels of ‘excess’ mortality in Scotland and Glasgow compared to elsewhere in the UK

Ralston, K., Feng, Z., Walsh, D. & Dibben, C. (2014) Social Stratification Research Conference, Univ of Edinburgh, UK, 10 - 12 September 2014 [SLS][ONS LS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page

Output from project: 2013_002 (SLS), 30159 (ONS LS)

The Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) Beta tests

Borowski, E., Dibben, C., Feng, Z., Frank, F., Graham, E., Raab, G., Ralston, K., Walker, S. & Williamson, L. (2014) UK LS 2011 Census Linkage Launch Event Church House, Westminster, London, UK, 6 March 2014 [SLS]

Other information: Poster Presentation

Available online: Link
Download output document: PDF 1MB

Transitions to Independent Living among Young Adults in Scotland in the Late 20th Century

Fiori, F., Graham, E. & Feng, Z. (2014) First Annual International Conference on Demography and Population Studies, Athens, Greece, 16 - 19 June 2014 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The past few decades have seen significant demographic, social and economic changes that have resulted in increased diversity across individual life courses and housing careers. Youth transitions to economic and residential independence, as well as to family formation, have increasingly become “late, protracted and complex” (Billari & Liefbroer, 2010). Although men and women have become more alike in how they move into adult roles (Furstenberg, 2010, p.72), women still leave home earlier than men.

The ‘extended’ transition to adulthood in Western Europe has been widely researched, but Scotland has rarely been the focus of empirical investigation. Scotland has a different socio-demographic profile and housing market to the rest of the UK, and the extent to which it shares common trends in transitions to adulthood is unclear. This paper therefore examines living arrangements for young Scots in the late 20th century. Of particular interest are the determinants of young adults’ transitions towards independent living and whether trajectories out of parental home are gendered. Data come from the Scottish Longitudinal Study (1991-2001). The sample consists of young adults aged 16-29 living with their parents at the beginning of the decade. Multinomial regression models are estimated to investigate the determinants of living arrangements 10 years later. The dependent variable contrasts living in the parental home with: a) living with others, b) living alone, c) living in a new family. Individual socio-economic characteristics, parental characteristics and urban/rural location are included as covariates. Findings show that women are more likely than men to leave the parental home. Individual characteristics have a similar effect on both genders, whereas men and women respond differently to the influence of their family and geographical context of origin. The paper concludes with a brief comparison of findings for Scotland with those for other parts of Britain.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_011

From birth to childhood: investigating socio-economic differences in health trajectories in the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Silverwood, R., Williamson, L., De Stavola, B., Dibben, C. & Grundy, E. (2014) NCRM Research Methods Festival, St Catherine's College, Oxford, 8 - 10 July 2014 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 888kB)
Output from project: 2013_008

Introduction to the SLS

Carsley, S. (2014) Scotland’s Census – Conference. Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK, 25 June 2014 [SLS]

Other information: Poster presentation

Available online: Link

Introduction to the SLS

Carsley, S. & Williamson, L. (2014) 43rd Annual Conference of the British Society of Gerontology. University of Southampton, UK, 1 - 3 September 2014 [SLS]

Other information: Poster presentation

Available online: Link

Simplifying synthesis with the synthpop package for R

Raab, G.M., Nowok, B. & Dibben, C. (2014) Privacy in Statistical Databases, Ibiza, Balearic Islands, 17 - 19 September 2014 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Generating synthetic microdata using the synthpop package

Nowok, B., Raab, G. & Dibben, C. (2014) ONS workshop: 'Synthetic data and associated disclosure risks', Titchfield, UK, 4 June 2014 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Generating synthetic microdata to widen access to sensitive data sets

Nowok, B., Raab, G. & Dibben, C. (2014) Workshop on Microdata Computation Centre (MiCoCe), Data without Boundaries project, German Federal Employment Agency, the Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany. 29 - 30 April 2014 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 514KB)
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Using e-DataSHIELD to run joint analysis from three National Statistics Agencies in the UK

Raab, G. (2014) Workshop on Microdata Computation Centre (MiCoCe), Data without Boundaries project, German Federal Employment Agency, the Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany. 29 - 30 April 2014 [SLS][NILS][CALLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 706KB)

Introduction to the SLS

Carsley, S. (2014) Health Inequalities Research Network (HERON) Conference, King's College London 14 - 15 May 2014 [SLS]

Other information: Poster

Available online: Link

Prospects for Synthetic data in Longitudinal Social Science

Dennett, A. (2014) ONS workshop: 'Synthetic Data Methodology for enhancing access to confidential microdata' ONS, Titchfield, UK, 1 December 2014 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Introduction to the SLS

Carsley, S. (2014) BSPS, Winchester, UK 8 - 10 September 2014 [SLS]

Other information: Poster

Available online: Link

Identifying vulnerabilities in men with cancer; social support and mental health problems

Dale, H., Ozakinci, G., Adair, P. & Humphris, G. (2014) British Psychological Society, Division of Clinical Psychology Annual Conference, Glasgow, UK. 3 - 5 December 2014 [SLS]

Other information:
Poster presentation

Introduction:

  • Men with cancer suffer worse mortality and morbidity rates than women.
  • Men seek less help than women for health problems regardless of disease type, which can lead to poorer symptom awareness or slower medical advice seeking, late diagnoses (White, Thomson & Forman, 2009), not accessing support (Lee and Owens, 2002), and not making preventative lifestyle changes (Wilkins et al, 2008).
  • Psychological barriers, pressures around masculinity, and wider cultural norms may also contribute to less help seeking (Robertson, 2007).
  • Age, marital status, living alone, cancer type, geographical location, deprivation, and cancer trajectory seem to be important in a range of health-related domains (e.g., distress, psychological health, and practicing good health behaviours.

Aim:

To identify which demographic and disease variables may be indicators of low social support, depression, anxiety, distress and poorer health behaviours in men with cancer.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Poster (PDF 324KB)
Output from project: 2010_002

SYnthetic data estimation for the UK LongitudinaL Studies – SYLLS

Dennett, A. (2014) NILS 2011 Census Linkage Launch Event, NISRA, McAuley House, Belfast, UK, 5 June 2014 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
Pages 102-124 of slides document below

SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 3.6MB)
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Area and individual socioeconomic factors and cancer risk: a population cohort study in Scotland

Sharpe, K., McMahon, A.D., Raab, G., Brewster, D.H. & Conway, D.I. (2013) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 28 - 30 August 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer risk differ by tumour site, age and sex. Lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer risk contribute 90% (males) and 81% (females) to cancer risk social inequalities in Scotland and are associated with low socioeconomic circumstances. We investigate the relative association with cancer risk of country of birth, marital status, area deprivation and individual socioeconomic variables (economic activity, education level, occupational social class, car ownership, housing tenure) for lung, UADT and all cancer risk (excluding non melanoma skin cancer).

Methods: We linked Scottish Longitudinal Study, vital event registries and Scottish Cancer Registry data and followed 203 658 cohort members aged 15+ years from 1991- 2006. We calculated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals using fully adjusted Poisson regression models for each sex offset by person-years of follow-up.

Results: 21 832 first primary tumours, including 3 505 lung and 1 206 UADT tumours were diagnosed corresponding to 3.05 million person- years of follow-up. For females, car ownership and housing tenure were more strongly associated with increased risk. For males unemployment was consistently associated with increased cancer risk (except lung), while education was not associated with increased risk. For lung cancer, area deprivation remained significant even after adjustment for individual variables in both sexes, suggesting the area affect can not be fully explained by individual socioeconomic circumstances. Finally, being born in Scotland, divorced or widowed was associated with increased risk regardless of sex.

Conclusion: Different and independent socioeconomic variables are associated with different cancer risks in different sexes.

Download output document: Conference program (PDF 1.4MB)
Output from project: 2009_005

Does the socio-economic gradient in all-cause mortality apply across equality subgroups in Scotland?

Millard, A.D., Raab, G., Eaglesham, P., Craig, P. & McCartney, G. (2013) Faculty of Public Health Annual Conference: 'Making Scotland a Healthier Place', Dunblane Hydro Hotel, Dunblane, Scotland, UK, 7 - 8 November 2013 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 3MB)
Output from project: 2012_003

Social support and desire for help in men with cancer: the mediating role of distress

Dale, H., Ozakinci, G., Adair, P. & Humphris, G. (2013) European Health Psychology Society Conference, Bordeaux, France, 16 - 20 July 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Background: Objectives were to examine relationships between social support, distress, lifestyle behaviours and desire for help, in men with cancer. Methods: A cross-sectional research study recruited men aged 18 and over with any cancer diagnosis (N = 127) through the health service and cancer charities. The questionnaire assessed social support (Social Provisions Scale), distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Distress Thermometer), health behaviours - smoking, alcohol, diet, exercise - and desire for support. Findings: Men reporting lower social support experienced higher distress, leading to a greater desire for help to improve lifestyle. Latent variable path analysis modelling confirmed that distress mediated the relationship between social support and desire for help for these issues. Discussion: Those with higher distress coupled with lower levels of support may be more willing to seek help. Those engaging in risky health behaviours may require more targeted interventions to motivate them and reduce service-related barriers.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 816KB)
Output from project: 2010_002

Do NEET experiences have adverse impacts on health? Evidence from Scotland

Feng, Z., Ralston, K., Dibben, C. & Raab, G. (2013) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 28 - 30 August 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Young people who are not in employment, education or training (NEET) are a disadvantaged group and their experiences may have an adverse effect on later life. Therefore the NEET phenomenon has drawn considerable attention from academic researchers and policy makers in Britain and other countries. However, there have been theoretical arguments on the social and health consequences of the NEET experiences. So far, few studies have investigated the effect of NEET experiences on health and the limited empirical research has yielded mixed results. This paper aims to investigate whether experiences of being NEET have adverse effects on health in the Scottish context, where the prevalence of NEETs is persistently high in comparison with other parts of Britain. We used the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population linking together census records, vital registrations and patient records. We followed young people who were aged 16-19 in 1991 for 19 years up to 2010. We used descriptive and modelling approaches in our analysis. We focus on three health outcomes: limiting long term illness, hospitalisation, depression and anxiety, which are separately derived from the census, Scottish Morbidity Records, and prescribing information system. In the study we control for a number of individual and household variables from the 1991 and 2001 censuses. This research contributes to the literature on effects of lifecourse events on later health outcomes and has considerable policy implications.

Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.5MB)
Output from project: 2013_005

Understanding the impact of fertility history on outcomes in mid-life in Scotland, a longitudinal approach using the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Williamson, L.E.P. & Dibben, C. (2013) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 28 - 30 August 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This study is part of the research programme involving data linkage within the Scottish Health Informatics Programme (SHIP). The research draws on and extends work on reproductive histories and life outcomes. Previous studies have shown that the number of children (parity) can be linked to specific health outcomes in mid and later life for women (references can be provided). We aim to extend this research specifically for Scotland based on Scottish data, namely the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) linked to health data from the NHS Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR) datasets, including the maternity dataset SMR02 (as parity is only recorded for married women at birth registration in Scotland).

The aim of this SHIP project, involving data linkage and health outcomes, is to gain a full understanding of the impact of both fertility histories and childlessness on health outcomes and mortality. In addition, we plan to compare findings with previous research where applicable. This research is only for specific female SLS birth cohorts, as it is acknowledged that we are not able to follow-up all SLS members or SLS members to old ages since the SMR02 is only available from 1975. Nevertheless, the SLS allows follow-up of the specific SLS birth cohorts from the 1991 Census until 2009 (the most recent year death data is available linked to the SLS). From preliminary modelling, in line with previous research, we find high birth parity to be an important factor in relation to mortality.

Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.5MB)
Output from project: 2011_002

Modelling risk of smoking related disease linked to deprivation: comparison of two linked data sets

Olajide, D. & Ludbrook, A. (2013) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 28 - 30 August 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Extract:

Linking disease risk associated with health behaviours to deprivation can assist in targeting interventions and addressing health inequalities. Relevant data sets available in Scotland are the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) and the Scottish Longitudinal Survey (SLS), administratively linked to Scottish Morbidity Records (SMR). The SHeS includes self reported health behaviours, but is potentially limited by small numbers when it comes to investigating specific diseases. The SLS has large numbers but does not contain individual health behaviour data. However, small area estimates of smoking probabilities have been developed. This study was a novel attempt to demonstrate the potential of such area based statistics by comparing results from separate analyses of the two data sets.

Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.5MB)
Output from project: 2009_001

The association between ambient modelled air pollution and birth outcomes in Scotland

Clemens, T. & Dibben, C. (2013) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 28 - 30 August 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

A growing number of studies have reported a relationship between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. In this paper we examine the association between fetal development, prematurity and ambient background concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulates up to 10μm in diameter (PM10) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) at the mother’s area of residence and place of work. We linked data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study (5% sample of the Scottish census in 1991 linked to 2001 census records) to maternity data from the Scottish morbidity record to identify a sample of singleton live births across Scotland. Modelled pollution data at a 1x1 km spatial resolution was obtained for the years 1994 to 2008 and linked to the census and birth records via the mothers residential and workplace postcode using a geographical information system. The association between pollution and mean birthweight, low birthweight < 2500g, small for gestational age, and prematurity was estimated adjusting for known confounders including ethnicity and smoking. The findings from the study will be presented and discussed together with a number of methodological matters arising from the study.

Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.5MB)

Flexible aging: new ways to measure and explore the diverse experience of population aging in Scotland, using the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Spijker, J. & MacInnes, J. (2013) ESRC Secondary Data Analysis Initiative (SDAI) Networking Event, London 6 - 7 June 2013 [SLS]

Output from project: 2013_003

Flexible ageing: new ways to measure the diverse experience of population ageing in Scotland

Spijker, J. & MacInnes, J. (2013) 42nd Annual Conference of the British Society of Gerontology, Oxford 11 - 13 September 2013 [SLS]

Output from project: 2013_003

Associations between small area crime rate and negative birth outcomes in Scotland

Clemens, T. & Dibben, C. (2013) BSPS Annual Conference 2013, University of Swansea, UK, 9 - 11 September 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Negative birth outcomes, which are important determinants of future child development, have been shown to be associated with both social and environmental characteristics of the mother’s area of residence. Air pollution has been identified as a key environmental factor but neighbourhood social stressors such as the prevalence of crime have remained relatively understudied. An important question is the extent to which area based characteristics exert an influence on birth outcomes independently of the individual socio-economic circumstances of the mother. This study examines the effect of small area crime rates in the mother’s place of residence for a number of birth outcomes (fetal development and risk of prematurity) with adjustment for a range of individual maternal characteristics including smoking. A sample of women was drawn from the nationally representative Scottish Longitudinal Study and births to these women (between 1994 and 2008) were identified through record linkage to maternity hospital admissions data. Maternal exposure to crime was estimated from the crime domain of the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) at small area level (datazones). The association between crime rates and birth outcomes was estimated from multilevel linear and generalised linear models. The preliminary findings, generally, indicate a significant relationship between levels of recorded crime at the mother’s place of residence and negative birth outcomes which remain significant after adjustment for a range of important individual confounding effects. These findings add to the growing body of evidence highlighting the independent association between local area characteristics and negative birth outcomes.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.4MB)

Impacts of NEET experiences on social and health outcomes: an analysis using the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Ralston, K., Raab, G., Dibben, C. & Feng, Z. (2013) British Society for Population Studies Annual Conference, University of Swansea, UK, 9 - 11 September 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The high proportion of young people who are not in employment, education or training (NEET) is considered a serious social problem and has drawn considerable attention from academic researchers and policy makers in Britain. Being left out of employment or education at a young age may have long lasting effects in later life. However, there have been theoretical debates on the consequences of the NEET experiences, and so far empirical studies have yielded mixed results. This paper aims to investigate whether experiences of being NEET have adverse effects on later life chances in the Scottish context, where the prevalence of NEETs is persistently high in comparison with other parts of Britain. We used the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), which is a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population We followed young people who were aged 16-19 in 1991 to 2001 when they were aged 26-29. Our outcome variables are economic activities, limiting long term illness and lone parent status. We used descriptive and modelling approaches in our analysis. Our research found that in 1991 NEETs were more likely to be of older (within the 16 to 19 age range), female, with lower qualifications, and to report limiting long illness. The NEET status in 1991 appears to be associated with negative social and health outcomes in 2001 but the strength of association varies with the type of outcome.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.4MB)
Output from project: 2013_005

Synthetic data estimation for the UK Longitudinal Studies: an introduction to the SYLLS project

Dennett, A., Wu, B. & Nowok, B. (2013) BSPS Annual Conference 2013, University of Swansea, UK, 9 - 11 September 2013 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Abstract:

The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS), Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) and Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS) are incredibly rich micro-datasets linking census and other health and administrative data (births, deaths, marriages, cancer registrations) for individuals and their immediate families across several decades. Whilst unique and valuable resources, the sensitive nature of the information they contain means that access to the microdata is restricted, limiting the user base. The SYLLS project will develop synthetic data which mimics the real longitudinal data but crucially will not be subject to the same access restrictions as the national LSs. In this paper we will introduce two different but complementary methods that we will be adopting to generate the synthetic data – microsimulation and multiple imputation. Microsimulation will be used to generate a synthetic LS ‘spine’, mimicking the full population of individuals in the LSs but for a limited set of core variables, transitioning between 1991 and 2001. Multiple Imputation will be used to generate bespoke synthetic data extracts which match precisely the requirements of individual research projects. This paper will report on the methodological progress to date, issues and prospects for the new synthetic datasets.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.4MB)
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Synthetic data estimation for the UK Longitudinal Studies – an introduction to the SYLLS project

Dennett, A., Wu, B. & Nowok, B. (2013) BSPS Annual Conference 2013, University of Swansea, UK, 9 - 11 September 2013 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Poster presentation.
Abstract:

The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS), Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) and Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS) are incredibly rich micro-datasets linking census and other health and administrative data (births, deaths, marriages, cancer registrations) for individuals and their immediate families across several decades. Whilst unique and valuable resources, the sensitive nature of the information they contain means that access to the microdata is restricted, limiting the user base.

The SYLLS project will develop synthetic data which mimics the real longitudinal data but crucially will not be subject to the same access restrictions as the national LSs. In this paper we will introduce two different but complementary methods that we will be adopting to generate the synthetic data – microsimulation and multiple imputation. Microsimulation will be used to generate a synthetic LS ‘spine’, mimicking the full population of individuals in the LSs but for a limited set of core variables, transitioning between 1991 and 2001. Multiple Imputation will be used to generate bespoke synthetic data extracts which match precisely the requirements of individual research projects.

This paper will report on the methodological progress to date, issues and prospects for the new synthetic datasets.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.4MB)
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Introducing the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Williamson, L.E.P. & Dibben, C. (2013) BSPS Annual Conference 2013, University of Swansea, UK, 9 - 11 September 2013 [SLS]

Other information: Poster presentation.
Abstract:

The poster will introduce the SLS and the datasets, the application process for researchers interested in using the SLS and outline research examples. The Longitudinal Studies Centre – The size and scope of the SLS make it an unparalleled resource in Scotland for analysing a range of socio- economic, demographic and health questions. Additionally, the longitudinal nature of the SLS is particularly valuable, allowing an exploration of causality in a way that cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time does not. In this way, the SLS can provide insights into the health and social status of the Scottish population and, crucially, how it changes over time. Scotland (LSCS) was established in 2001 and hosts the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). This study links together routinely collected administrative data for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population (about 270,000 people). It currently includes a wealth of information from the censuses starting in 1991, vital events registrations (births, deaths and marriages), Scottish education data, and with appropriate permissions can be linked to NHS health data including cancer registry and hospital admission data.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Conference programme & abstracts (PDF 1.4MB)

Exploiting historical registers: Automatic methods for coding c19th and c20th cause of death descriptions to standard classifications

Carson, J., Kirby, G., Dearle, A., Williamson, L., Garrett, E., Reid, A. & Dibben, C. (2013) NTTS (New Techniques and Technologies for Statistics), Brussels, Belgium, 15 - 17 March 2013 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The increasing availability of digitised registration records presents a significant opportunity for research. Returning to the original records allows researchers to classify descriptions, such as cause of death, to modern medical understandings of illness and disease, rather than relying on contemporary registrars’ classifications. Linkage of an individual’s records together also allows the production of sparse life-course micro-datasets. The further linkage of these into family units then presents the possibility of reconstructing family structures and producing multi-generational studies. We describe work to develop a method for automatically coding to standard classifications the causes of death from 8.3 million Scottish death certificates. We have evaluated a range of approaches using text processing and supervised machine learning, obtaining accuracy from 72%-96% on several test sets. We present results and speculate on further development that may be needed for classification of the full data set.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full paper (PDF 178KB)

Synthetic Data Estimation for the UK Longitudinal Studies

Wu, B. (2013) 4th General Conference of the International Microsimulation Association, Australian National University, Acton, Australia, 11 - 13 December 2013 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS][CALLS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2013_012 (SLS), 30158 (ONS LS), 079 (NILS)

Linking across sectors: the development of the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Dibben, C. (2012) The Health Statistics Users Group - Developments in Data Linkage, Health and Social Care Information Centre, Leeds, UK, 29 March 2012 [SLS]

Linkage of school education data to the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Dibben, C. & Boag, C. (2012) Life after the Census, University of Ulster, Belfast, UK, 9 May 2012 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 586KB)

The Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Dibben, C. (2012) Life after the Census, University of Ulster, Belfast, UK, 9 May 2012 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 3.4MB)

The Impact of Spousal Bereavement on Hospitalisations and Mortality: Evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Petrie, D. (2012) University of Melbourne Health Economics Group 6th Annual Health Economics Workshop, Melbourne, Australia, 24 April 2012 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2011_006

An investigation into the usefulness of synthetic measures of occupation based wage for self-reported general health

Clemens, T. (2012) British Society for Population Studies (BSPS) annual conference 2012, University of Nottingham, UK, 10 - 12 September 2012 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Background: Obtaining accurate and unbiased measurements of individual income in many surveys is difficult owing to the sensitive nature of the information. Studies that do collect income often report differential missing data or mis-measurement and may also impact on overall survey response rates. These concerns formed part of the reason to reject calls to include an income question in the latest UK census in 2011. Lack of income information is problematic in many sociodemographic studies of health and mortality owing to the importance of income as a determinant of, for example mental and self-assessed health as well as mortality. Aims: This paper investigates the potential utility of a synthetic occupation based estimate of wages. Methods The study uses the SOC2000 classification of occupation to derive a hierarchical mixed model using data from the labour force survey which is then validated using self-rated health data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHS) 2003 and wave one (2009) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). Findings: Our estimates compare favourably with the survey income measurements. This suggests that this approach could be used to account for income disparities in self-rated general health in those surveys where income is not directly measured including census based longitudinal studies.

Available online: Link

An introduction to the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Feng, Z. & Dibben, C. (2012) Census and demography in history and today, 1591-2011, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Madrid, Spain, 18 - 19 June 2012 [SLS]

Population ageing in Scotland – Implications for the projection of healthcare expenditure

Geue, C., Briggs, A., Lewsey, J. & Lorgelly, P. (2012) 4th Biennial SMDM European Meeting, Oslo, Norway, 10 - 12 June 2012 [SLS]

Output from project: 2009-011

The potential impact of a social redistribution of specific risk factors on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality

Hoffman, R., Eikemo, T.A., Kulhánová, I., Kulik, C., Toch, M., Menvielle, G., Mackenbach, J.P. & EURO-GBD-SE consortium (2012) Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (PAA), San Francisco, USA, 2 - 5 May 2012 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Evidence on the contribution of risk factors to health inequality is scarce. We quantify the impact of modifying risk factor distributions on educational mortality differences using the Population Attributable Fraction. This is done for scenarios in which the social distribution of risk factors changes in 20 European populations. We also estimate the effect of a change in the educational distribution on the overall level of mortality. We use national data on risk factor prevalence and mortality, and rate ratios from epidemiologic reviews on the impact of risk factors on mortality. The scenarios where the whole population has the same prevalence of physical activity, smoking and BMI as the high educated show that excess mortality of low educated persons would drop by 2 to 49 percent. A redistribution of income results in smaller reductions of inequalities. We present a promising tool for quantifying the effect of policy interventions on health inequality.

Download output document: Full paper (PDF 211KB)
Output from project: 2011_003

Smoking and the potential for reduction of inequalities in mortality in Europe

Kulik, M.C., Hoffmann, R., Judge, K., Eikemo, T.A., Mackenbach, J.P. & EURO-GBD-SE consortium (2012) WEON conference, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 14 - 15 June 2012 [SLS]

Output from project: 2011_003

Smoking and the potential for reduction of inequalities in mortality in Europe

Kulik, M.C., Hoffmann, R., Judge, K., Eikemo, T.A., Mackenbach, J.P. & EURO-GBD-SE consortium (2012) Health inequalities over the life course - Joint congress of the ESHMS and DGMS, Hanover, Germany, 30 August - 1 September 2012 [SLS]

Output from project: 2011_003

Absolute and relative social inequalities in mortality – Gender differences in 16 European countries

Östergren, O., Lundberg, O. & EURO-GBD-SE consortium (2012) Health inequalities over the life course - Joint congress of the ESHMS and DGMS, Hanover, Germany, 30 August - 1 September 2012 [SLS]

Output from project: 2011_003

Occupational inequalities in cause-specific and all-cause mortality in European men

Toch, M., Menvielle, G., Eikemo, T.A., Jasilionis, D., Mackenbach, J. & EURO-GBD-SE consortium (2012) European Population Conference (EPC), Stockholm, Sweden, 13 - 16 June 2012 [SLS]

Other information:
Introduction:

In the last decades life expectancy has shown a remarkable - almost linear - increase (Oeppen and Vaupel, 2002). However, substantial differences in mortality are still observed and may even be increasing between socioeconomic groups (Davey Smith et al., 2002; Donkin et al., 2002; Leclerc et al., 2006; Mackenbach et al., 2003). Those inequalities are one of the biggest challenges of societies (Marmot, 2005). Further, they differ considerably between European populations. Such inequalities are unfair, unnecessary and avoidable. Cross country comparisons can help identify the scope for reduction. Europe is a unique region in this respect, as inter country population characteristics as well as history and development between countries differ, and highly reliable and comparable data on mortality and socioeconomic position are available in the majority of the countries. Previous research though, focussed mainly on educational inequalities. Fewer articles analysed occupational class inequalities (Kunst et al., 1998; Mackenbach et al., 1997; Mackenbach et al., 2008) and most analyses here focus on occupational inequalities in the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of this study is to analyse for the first time occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and mortality due to several causes of death in Europe at the start of the new millennium. This study – as a part of the Euro-GBD-SE project – contributes to the aim of tackling inequalities in Europe, as it analyses mortality inequalities by occupational class with recent, comprehensive and comparable data from 14 European countries. We present results for all cause mortality, all cancers, all CVD, all external and all other.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full paper (PDF 192KB)
Output from project: 2011_003

Linking Scottish vital events records back through time to produce the ‘Understanding Scotland’s People Study’

Williamson, L. (2012) 2nd Mosaic conference: Residence patterns of the elderly, Hungarian Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary 6 - 7 September 2012 [SLS]

Available online: Link

Understanding the impact of fertility history on outcomes in mid-life in Scotland, a longitudinal approach using the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Williamson, L. & Dibben, C. (2012) British Society for Population Studies annual conference 2012 University of Nottingham, UK 10 - 12 September 2012 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

This study is part of the research programme involving data linkage within the Scottish Health Informatics Programme (SHIP). The research draws on and extends work on reproductive histories and life outcomes. Previous studies have shown that the number of children (parity) can be linked to specific health outcomes in mid and later life for women (references can be provided). We aim to extend this research specifically for Scotland based on Scottish data, namely the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) linked to health data from the NHS Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR) datasets, including the maternity dataset SMR02 (as parity is only recorded for married women at birth registration in Scotland). The aim of this SHIP project, involving data linkage and health outcomes, is to gain a full understanding of the impact of both fertility histories and childlessness on health outcomes and mortality. In addition, we plan to compare findings with previous research where applicable. This research is only for specific female SLS birth cohorts, as it is acknowledged that we are not able to follow-up all SLS members or SLS members to old ages since the SMR02 is only available from 1975. Nevertheless, the SLS allows follow-up of the specific SLS birth cohorts from the 1991 Census until 2009 (the most recent year death data is available linked to the SLS). From preliminary modelling, in line with previous research, we find high birth parity to be an important factor in relation to mortality.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2011_002

Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Williamson, L. & Dibben, C. (2012) British Society for Population Studies (BSPS) annual conference 2012, University of Nottingham, UK, 10 - 12 September 2012 [SLS]

Other information: Poster presentation

Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)

Williamson, L. & Dibben, C. (2012) ESRC Festival of Social Science: Public perceptions of privacy and confidentiality, Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, UK, 8 November 2012 [SLS]

Other information: Poster Presentation

Does Area Regeneration Improve Residents’ Health & Well-being?

Archibald, D. (2011) Urban Affairs Association 41st Annual Meeting, New Orleans, USA. 16 - 19 March 2011 [SLS]

Other information: Abstract: Over £12 billion has been spent on area regeneration initiatives in the United Kingdom over the last twenty years. The potential to combat deprivation, improve health and reduce health inequalities is often used as justification for such a large- scale investment. Nevertheless, evaluation of these initiatives has been sporadic, often producing conflicting results. Some regeneration programmes appear to have had positive effects on health and socio-economic status; others have had no, or even a detrimental effect. This may, however, be attributed to difficulties in designing appropriate evaluation studies rather than the effects of regeneration. For example, few studies have been able to follow individuals over time so that their changing circumstances can be more related to the regeneration processes that they experience. Other evaluations have relied on comparing population characteristics in an area before and after regeneration, ignoring the fact that the resident population may have changed substantially during this period.

Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 2.6MB)
Output from project: 2009_008

Examining the relationship between individual labour market disadvantage and mortality in Scotland using the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Clemens, T. (2011) Census Portal conference: The longitudinal studies of England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_005

The Scottish Longitudinal Study

Dibben, C. (2011) US Census Bureau Conference on Utilizing Administrative Data, Washington DC, USA, 27 - 28 October 2011 [SLS]

Other information: Abstract: The Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) is a large-scale linkage study which has been created by using data available from current Scottish administrative and statistical sources. These include Census data, Vital Events data (births, deaths, marriages), National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR) data (migration in or out of Scotland), Scottish Schools and NHS data (cancer registrations and hospital admissions). The SLS is a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population and began with data from the 1991 census. Approximately 274,000 SLS members have been identified from the 1991 census and information for these individuals has been linked from other datasets, including the 2001 and 2012 census, vital events and health information.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 318KB)

Ethnic Groups: Stability, changes and health inequalities in Scotland – an analysis using the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Feng, Z. & Dibben, C. (2011) SHIP Biennial Conference, University of St Andrews, UK, 9 - 11 September 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_011

Population ageing in Scotland: Implications for healthcare expenditure using linked SLS/SMR01 data

Geue, C., Briggs, A., Lewsey, J. & Lorgelly, P. (2011) Health Economists Study Group meeting, Bangor, Wales. [SLS]

Output from project: 2009_011

Population ageing in Scotland: Implications for healthcare expenditure using linked SLS-SMR01 data

Geue, C., Briggs, A., Lewsey, J. & Lorgelly, P. (2011) SHIP Biennial Conference, University of St Andrews, UK, 9 - 11 September 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2009_011

Trends in avoidable mortality in Scotland 1991-2007

Raab, G. & Boag, C. (2011) IEA World Congress of Epidemiology, Edinburgh, UK, 7 - 11 August 2011 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2010_003

Trends in avoidable mortality in Scotland 1991-2007

Raab, G. & Boag, C. (2011) National Records of Scotland, Population Migration & Statistics (PAMS) Conference: Scotland's People - Past, Present and Future, Scottish Government, Edinburgh, UK, 26 October 2011 [SLS]

Output from project: 2010_003

Occupational inequalities in cause-specific and all-cause mortality in Europe

Toch, M., Menvielle, G., Eikemo, T.A., Mackenbach, J. & EURO-GBD-SE consortium (2011) PopFest, University of Groningen, the Netherlands, 27 - 29 June 2011 [SLS]

Other information: Abstract: In the last decades life expectancy has shown a remarkable increase. However, substantial differences in mortality are still observed and may even be increasing between socioeconomic groups. Previous research focussed mainly on educational rather then occupational class inequalities. Such inequalities are unfair, unnecessary and avoidable, but cross country comparisons can help identify the scope for reduction. Europe is a unique region this respect, as it’s inter country population characteristics as well as history and development in between countries differ, and highly reliable and comparable data on mortality and socioeconomic position are available in the majority of the countries. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational inequalities in cause-specific and all-cause mortality in Europe at the start of the new millennium. We analysed nationally representative data on cause- specific and all-cause mortality by occupational class from 13 countries all over Europe. We applied cross- sectional and longitudinal data obtained from population censuses and mortality registries from each country analysed. Data were centrally harmonized which enhances cross-country comparability. Men and women from age 30 to 64 are analysed. Occupational class was analyzed according to upper and lower non- manual, skilled and unskilled manual workers, self- employed as well as farmers. In order to assess the magnitude of occupational class inequalities, rate ratios for cause-specific and all-cause mortality are estimated with Poisson regression. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to correct for an underestimation of mortality inequalities due to exclusion of economic inactive persons. This study contributes to the aim of tackling inequalities in Europe, as it analyses mortality inequalities by occupational class with recent, comprehensive and comparable data from 13 European countries.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 353KB)
Output from project: 2011-003

Migration, occupational mobility, and regional escalators in Scotland

van Ham, M., Findlay, A., Manley, D. & Feijten, P. (2011) 23rd ENHR Conference, Toulouse, France 5 - 8 July 2011 [SLS]

Other information: Abstract: This paper seeks to unpick the complex relationship between an individual’s migration behaviour, their place of residence, and their occupational performance in the Scottish labour market between 1991 and 2001. We investigate whether Edinburgh has emerged as an occupational escalator region and whether individuals moving there experience more rapid upward occupational mobility than those living and moving elsewhere. Using country of birth we also control for an individual’ s propensity to make long distance moves during earlier periods of their life course. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, linking 1991 and 2001 individual Census records, and logistic regressions, we show that those who migrate over long distances within, or to Scotland are most likely to achieve upward occupational mobility. We also found that Edinburgh is by far the most important regional escalator in Scotland. This is an important finding as most literature on escalator regions focuses on international mega cities.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full Paper (PDF 310KB)
Output from project: 2007_005

Longitudinal Studies Centre – Scotland

Williamson, L. & Boag, C. (2011) British Society for Population Studies Conference, University of York, UK, 7 - 9 September 2011 [SLS]

Other information: Poster presentation.

Abstract: The Longitudinal Studies Centre – Scotland (LSCS) was established in 2001 and hosts the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). This study links together routinely collected administrative data for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population (about 270,000 people). It currently includes a wealth of information from the 1991 and 2001 censuses, vital events registrations (births, deaths and marriages), and can be linked to cancer registry and hospital admission data.

The size and scope of the SLS make it an unparalleled resource for analysing a range of socio-economic, demographic and health questions. Additionally, the longitudinal nature of the SLS is particularly valuable, allowing an exploration of causality in a way that cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time does not. In this way, the SLS can provide insights into the health and social status of the Scottish population and, crucially, how it changes over time.

The poster will introduce the SLS and the datasets, the application process for researchers interested in using the SLS and outline research examples and SLS future developments.

Available online: Link

Longitudinal Studies Centre – Scotland

Williamson, L. & Boag, C. (2011) National Records of Scotland, Population Migration & Statistics (PAMS) Conference: Scotland's People - Past, Present and Future, Scottish Government, Edinburgh, UK, 26 October 2011 [SLS]

Other information: Poster presentation.

Abstract: The Longitudinal Studies Centre – Scotland (LSCS) was established in 2001 and hosts the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). This study links together routinely collected administrative data for a 5.3% representative sample of the Scottish population (about 270,000 people). It currently includes a wealth of information from the 1991 and 2001 censuses, vital events registrations (births, deaths and marriages), and can be linked to cancer registry and hospital admission data.

The size and scope of the SLS make it an unparalleled resource for analysing a range of socio-economic, demographic and health questions. Additionally, the longitudinal nature of the SLS is particularly valuable, allowing an exploration of causality in a way that cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time does not. In this way, the SLS can provide insights into the health and social status of the Scottish population and, crucially, how it changes over time.

The poster will introduce the SLS and the datasets, the application process for researchers interested in using the SLS and outline research examples and SLS future developments.

Examining geographical effects on the formation and migration of mixed-ethnic unions using longitudinal data

Feng, Z., Raab, G., van Ham, M. & Boyle, P. (2010) 4th ESRC Research Methods Festival, St Catherine's College, Oxford, UK. 5 - 8 July 2010 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2007_016

Introducing the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Boyle, P. & Huang, Z. (2010) PopFest 2010, University of St Andrews, UK, 28 - 30 June 2010 [SLS]

Space, migration and health: learning from routine data

Boyle, P. (2010) 45th Scientific Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society, University of Padua, Italy, 16 - 18 June 2010 [SLS]

Other information: Plenary talk

Available online: Link

Testing the feasibility of extending the Scottish Longitudinal Study back through time

Boyle, P. & Huang, Z. (2010) Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) Inaugural Conference, Cambridge, UK. [SLS]

Does widowhood increase mortality risk?

Boyle, P., Feng, Z.. & Raab, G. (2010) British Society for Population Studies Annual Conference, University of Exeter, UK, 13 - 15 September 2010 [SLS]

Other information: Abstract: We consider whether widowhood increases mortality risk. Although commonly observed, this ‘widowhood effect’ could be due to selection effects as married couples share various characteristics related to the risk of death. We therefore consider the widowhood effect by different causes of spousal death; some are correlated with these shared characteristics, while others are not. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study we compare outcomes for men and women by different causes of death of their spouse, controlling for a range of individual- and household-level characteristics. The widowhood effect is greater than has been found from other recent studies, especially for older women. The risk is highest shortly after widowhood, but remains significant for over ten years. These broad results hold regardless of the cause of death of the spouse, suggesting that this is a causal effect, rather than a result of selection. Health interventions to support widows should be prioritised.

Download output document: paper Abstract (PDF 22KB)
Output from project: 2008_006

Unemployment and Mortality in Scotland: Towards a Causal Explanation

Clemens, T. (2010) Annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Washington D.C., US, 14 - 18 April 2010 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Given the current recession and increased rates of unemployment, a greater understanding of the potential impact that prolonged spells of unemployment may have on various health outcomes and mortality is essential. To date, despite strong statistical associations between worklessness and subsequent mortality, many studies have stopped short of ascribing a causal explanation through which worklessness may increase mortality risk. Instead, alternative explanations to this association have been offered and emanate predominantly from the idea of health-related selection whereby individuals with poorer general health will be on average more likely to be out of work than those individuals in better health. It is often very difficult to tease out these different influences in non-experimental observational settings. Some studies, particularly those making use of natural experiment scenarios, have found little evidence of independent causal effects of unemployment on mortality. For example, one group of studies have suggested that the mortality risk of unemployment is lowered during periods of higher overall unemployment reasoning that during these periods health selective unemployment would be much less likely.

Using the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) which incorporates extensive information on prior health and subsequent mortality we use causal modelling techniques to study two aims; firstly to identify evidence of a causal relationship between unemployment and mortality and secondly to investigate this relationship spatially. Given that the relationship has been shown to differ temporally we ask whether it may also differ between areas of higher and lower unemployment within Scotland.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2008_005

Unemployment and Mortality in Scotland: Towards a Causal Explanation

Clemens, T. (2010) 15th Emerging New Researchers in the Geography of Health and Impairment (ENRGHI) Conference, Geography Institute of Paris, France, 10 - 11 June 2010 [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_005

Unemployment and Mortality in Scotland: Towards a Causal Explanation

Clemens, T. (2010) PopFest 2010, University of St Andrews, UK, 28 - 30 June 2010 [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_005

Unemployment & mortality in Scotland: towards a causal explanation

Clemens, T., Popham, F. & Boyle, P. (2010) British Society for Population Studies annual conference 2010 University of Exeter, UK, 13 - 15 September 2010 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Unemployment is related to poorer health and mortality. However, the extent to which this relationship is causal is a matter of continuing research. In particular, the issues of both direct selection (poor health causing unemployment) and indirect selection (differences in individual characteristics) are both suggested as possible explanations of the unemployment health association. In this paper we bring together routinely collected administrative data (from the Scottish Longitudinal Study) that is unique in the UK context and an innovative research design (propensity score matching) to ask; is there a mortality risk of unemployment in Scotland and to what extent is this risk attenuated by (health) selection? We discuss our findings in light of other recent studies conducted in Nordic countries that have also explored whether unemployment heightens mortality risk. Within this literature we focus particularly on the role of differences in welfare state provision between these Nordic countries and the UK.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 88KB)
Output from project: 2008_005

Secularization and migration in Scotland: a test of the modernization hypothesis

Feijten, P., van Dijck, J. & Boyle, P. (2010) European Population Conference, Vienna, Austria, 1 - 4 September 2010 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Drawing on modernization theory, this study investigates whether secularization is associated with rural-urban migration on an individual level. The hypothesis is tested for Scotland, using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, a 5.3% population sample linking the 1991 and 2001 censuses. It is analysed whether individuals who became secular over the 10-year period had higher migration rates into cities. The findings confirm that individuals who have become secular are more likely to have moved from a rural to an urban settlement. This finding does not explain the direction of causality, however. Are secularized individuals more likely to move to a city because they feel more at home there than in a rural area? Or do those who move to cities become secular more often, because they are subject to the modern and diverse urban environment? Difference-in-difference models are applied to gain insight into this matter. We also look at possible differences between Protestants and Catholics (who became secular), and at regional differences (of both origin and destination). Our results show that religion is still an important factor in internal migration in contemporary Scotland.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Full Paper (PDF 119KB)
Output from project: 2008_001

Are mixed ethnic unions more likely to dissolve than co-ethnic unions, and does neighbourhood ethnic mix have an influence?

Feng, Z., Boyle, P., van Ham, M. & Raab, G. (2010) British Society for Population Studies annual conference 2010, University of Exeter, UK, 13 - 15 September 2010 [SLS][ONS LS]

Other information:
Abstract:

People generally partner someone with similar characteristics in terms of age, religion, ethnicity, level of education, and family background. The increasing share of ethnic minorities in Britain has been paralleled by an increase in the occurrence of mixed ethnic unions involving a White and an ethnic minority partner. Such unions are thought to run higher risks of dissolution, but empirical studies so far have been inconclusive. This paper uses the Office for National Statistics longitudinal study (ONS LS) to investigate whether mixed ethnic unions are more likely to dissolve than co- ethnic unions. Following married or cohabiting couples from 1991 to 2001 we find clear evidence that ethnic minorities who out-partner with Whites exhibit higher risks of dissolution, although this effect varies between ethnic groups. We also show that the ethnic mix in the residential neighbourhood plays a role in the stability of such partnerships – for example, couples involving Black and White partners living in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of Black people have higher risks of dissolution than those living elsewhere. Again, however, the role of neighbourhood context varies between ethnic groups.

Available online: Link
Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 22KB)
Output from project: 2007_016 (SLS), 30092 (ONS LS)

Is Scotland a Meritocracy?

Findlay, A., van Ham, M., Manley, D. & Feijten, P.M. (2010) ESRC Festival of Social Science: The Changing Face of Scotland, Dundee, UK, 18 March 2010 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_005

What might the 2001 Scottish census tell us about the question of sectarianism in Scottish Society?

Holligan, C. (2010) Child Migration Research Network conference: Growing up in Divided Societies, Queens University, Belfast, UK, 10 - 11 June 2010 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_008

Does sectarianism exist in Scotland? A statistical examination of Catholic and Protestant intermarriage patterns

Holligan, C. & Raab, G. (2010) British Society for Population Studies annual conference 2010 University of Exeter, UK, 13 - 15 September 2010 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

In recent years there continues to be debate about the extent to which Scotland is afflicted by religious sectarianism. Our paper contributes to the debate about sectarianism in Scotland by using 2001 Census data available via the Scottish Longitudinal Study of over 111 thousand couples. Bruce et al (2005, 151) argue that sectarianism “is more a myth than a social reality”. Others (Walls & Williams, 2003, 632; Walls & Williams, 2005) argue that on the contrary there is a “continuing experience of sectarian discrimination in work...affecting Glasgow’s Irish Catholic community”, during the period 1950-2000. Lindsay (2000, 363) discovered that rather than Catholics being held back from moving up the social scale that their status has probably risen “to a greater extent than non-Catholics” in Scotland, a position more consistent with Bruce et al, but the position with older Catholics was more problematic. We have used data from cohabiting couples where both were born in Scotland, aged 16-74 and raised in a Christian denomination or with no religion. The sample represents around 11% of all such couples in the Census. One major result of our statistical analysis is that the proportion of inter-sectarian (Roman Catholic and Protestant) couples has increased steeply for the youngest age groups and in the West of Scotland, these make up 25% of all couples. This measure of chronological change as an index of a dilution of sectarianism is perhaps consistent with recent studies of Glasgow concerning young people’s marginal sectarian habits (Holligan & Deuchar, 2009; Deuchar & Holligan, 2010) compared with significant territoriality, in the case of young people. It is concluded however that religious inter-marriage is not necessarily indicative of a demise in sectarianism, being for instance a symptom of its putative decline; and also that despite being in inter-marriages members of those couples may nevertheless continue to display sectarian attitudes in other contexts, such as football.

Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 35KB)
Output from project: 2007_008

Inter-sectarian Couples in Scotland

Holligan, C. & Raab, G. (2010) Child Migration Research Network conference: Growing up in Divided Societies, Queens University, Belfast, UK, 10 - 11 June 2010 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_008

15 to 30 (and beyond): an analysis of family formation and first birth using the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Ralston, K. (2010) Centre for Research on Families and Relationships International Conference 2010: Changing Families in a Changing World, University of Edinburgh, UK. [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_004

Neighbourhood deprivation and occupational mobility: A longitudinal investigation of neighbourhood effects

Manley, D. & van Ham, M. (2010) European Network for Housing Research (ENHR) 22nd Conference: Urban Dynamics and Housing Change, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey, 4 - 7 July 2010 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_006

Is being English (or Welsh…) in Scotland a good thing? Occupational mobility and migration in Scotland

van Ham, M., Manley, D., Findlay, A. & Feijten, P. (2010) ESRC/CASS Conference on Migration & Labout Markets: China and the UK, University of St Andrews, UK, 12 - 14 June 2010 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_005

Social mobility: Is there a benefit of being English in Scotland?

van Ham, M., Findlay, A., Manley, D. & Feijten, P. (2010) 50th Anniversary European Congress of the Regional Science Association International, Jönköping, Sweden, 19 - 23 August 2010 [SLS]

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2007_005

Understanding Scottish birth parity: A comparison of estimates from different data sources

Williamson, L., Graham, E. & Boyle, P. (2010) British Society for Population Studies annual conference 2010, University of Exeter, UK, 13 - 15 September 2010 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

Virtually no studies have been able to directly examine birth parity in Scotland due to the lack of comprehensive data on birth order, yet this information is crucially important in understanding Scottish fertility trends. In Scotland parity data is not readily available since civil registration only records all previous births within marriage and given that in 2007 only 51% of births in Scotland occurred within marriage compared with 90% in 1977 (GROS 2008:64), parity data from civil registration is unlikely to be a true reflection of the fertility behaviour of Scottish women today. Equally, census information on number of resident children in the household may underestimate parity by omitting natural children living elsewhere. In this paper, we report a series of parity profiles for a sample of women in the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) derived from two different data sources: maternity inpatient and day case data (SMR02) and vital events data. By comparing different parity profiles by marital status for the same group of women in the SLS, we consider the relative reliability of parity information from different sources and assess the extent to which using indirect estimates of parity (based on vital registration data) may be misleading. General Register Office for Scotland (GROS). (2008). Scotland’s Population 2007: The Registrar General’s Annual Review of Demographic Trends. 153rd Edition

Download output document: Paper Abstract (PDF 50KB)
Output from project: 2008_012

Testing the feasibility of extending the Scottish Longitudinal Study back through time

Huang, Z. & Boyle, P. (2009) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 17 - 19 September 2009 [SLS]

Unemployment, mortality and overcoming the problem of health related selection: evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Clemens, T., Popham, F. and Boyle, P. (2009) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 17 - 19 September 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_005

Post-partum psychosis in Scotland 1991-2001

Barbour, R. (2009) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 17-19 September 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_007

Using the Scottish Longitudinal Study to consider the effects of widowhood on mortality

Boyle, P. (2009) British Society for Population Studies Day Conference: Health and mortality using record linkage data in the UK, London School of Economics, UK. [SLS]

Other information: event website

Output from project: 2008_006

The value of linking lives through time for health research

Boyle, P. (2009) The Open University: Statistics for health registers and linked databases, Milton Keynes, UK. [SLS]

Linking the Scottish Longitudinal Study back through time

Boyle, P. (2009) Royal Statistical Society annual conference: Statistics in a changing society: 175 years of progress, Edinburgh, UK, 7 - 11 September 2009 [SLS]

Use of the SLS as administrative data linkage in comparative research

Boyle, P. (2009) Longview Annual Conference 2009: New Thinking in Longitudinal and Life Course Study, Clare College, Cambridge, UK, 21 - 22 September 2009 [SLS]

Administrative data linkage: the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Boyle, P. (2009) Longview Annual Conference 2009: New Thinking in Longitudinal and Life Course Study, Clare College, Cambridge, UK, 21 - 22 September 2009 [SLS]

Does widowhood increase mortality risk: comparing different causes of spousal death to test for selection effects

Boyle, P., Feng, Z. & Raab, G. (2009) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 17 - 19 September 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_006

Testing the feasibility of extending the Scottish Longitudinal Study back through time

Boyle, P. & Huang, Z. (2009) RSS Annual Conference, London, UK. [SLS]

Testing the feasibility of extending the Scottish Longitudinal Study back through time

Boyle, P. & Huang, Z. (2009) Joint conference of the ESRC Census programme and Census Study Group: 2011 Census research - new data, linkage and outputs, London, UK. [SLS]

Unemployment, mortality and the problem of health-related selection: Evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Clemens, T. (2009) PopFest 2009, London School of Economics, UK, 2 - 4 July 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_005

Migration and religion in Scotland: a study on the relationship between religion and migration behaviour

Feijten, P., Boyle, P.J. & van Dijck, J. (2009) 5th International Conference on Population Geographies, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA, 6 - 9 August 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_001

Neighbourhood effects on formation and migration of mixed ethnic unions

Feng, Z., van Ham, M., Boyle, P.J. & Raab, G.M. (2009) 5th International Conference on Population Geographies, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA, 6 - 9 August 2009 [SLS][ONS LS]

Output from project: 2007_016 (SLS), 30092 (ONS LS)

English migrants on a Scottish escalator : the case of upward occupational mobility in the Edinburgh labour market

Findlay, A. & van Ham, M. (2009) RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, University of Manchester, UK, 26 - 28 August 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_005

The residential mobility of mixed ethnic unions: a longitudinal study

Feng, Z., Raab, G., van Ham, M. & Boyle, P. (2009) RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, University of Manchester, UK, 26 - 28 August 2009 [SLS][ONS LS]

Output from project: 2007_016 (SLS), 30092 (ONS LS)

Unemployment, mortality and overcoming the problem of health related selection: evidence from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Clemens, T., Popham, F. & Boyle, P. (2009) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 17 - 19 September 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_005

Neighbourhood effects and labour market outcomes: an investigation of spatial scales and measures of relative deprivation

Manley, D. & van Ham, M. (2009) ISA International Housing Conference, University of Glasgow, UK, 1 - 4 September 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_005

Selective internal migration: does it explain Glasgow’s worsening mortality record?

Popham, F., O'Reilly, D., Leyland, A. & Boyle, P. (2009) SHIP conference: Exploiting Existing Data for Health Research, University of St Andrews, UK, 17-19 September 2009 [SLS]

Output from project: 2008_010

Ethnicity, country of birth and the Scottish escalator effect

van Ham, M., Findlay, A. & Manley, D. (2009) British Society for Population Studies (BSPS) Annual Conference, University of Sussex, UK, 9 - 11 September 2009 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

A number of powerful forces have produced uneven opportunities for occupational advancement in Scotland. Edinburgh as capital of a devolved nation, hub for financial service activities and regional head office location for many public sector bodies certainly boasts many of the characteristics that one would expect to find in an escalator region. However, there are also many individual level factors that can influence success in the labour market. This paper seeks to unpick the complex relationships between occupational mobility, migration, ethnicity, country of birth and place of residence in Scotland. We do this using longitudinal Census data linking individual records from the 1991 and 2001 Censuses obtained via the Scottish Longitudinal Study. From the data we create logistic regression models assessing the probability that individuals in social classes 3 or 5 move upwards, and individuals in social classes 1 or 2 manage to maintain their position. Particular attention is given to the labour force experience of English-born residents of Edinburgh, whom the cross sectional literature suggests are more likely to achieve high occupational status than their Scottish counterparts.

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2007_005

Associations between self reported health and mortality in the UK: analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland

Young, H. (2009) BSPS Day Conference: Health and mortality using record linkage data in the UK, London School of Economics, UK. [SLS][NILS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Event website

Output from project: 2008_009 (SLS), 30086 (ONS LS), 028 (NILS)

Integrated analysis of the England and Wales, Scottish and Northern Ireland Longitudinal Studies: health and mortality as a case study

Young, H. (2009) Census workshop: Health and Ethnicity - using Samples of Anonymised Records and ONS Longitudinal Study, City University, London, UK, 16 April 2009 [SLS][ONS LS][NILS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Output from project: 2008_009

Developing analyses of the England and Wales, Scottish and Northern Ireland Census Longitudinal studies: health and mortality as a case study

Young, H., Grundy, E. & Boyle, P. (2009) SRC-RSS day conference: 2011 Census research: new data, linkage and outputs, London, UK. [SLS][ONS LS][NILS]

Other information:
SLS project page
ONS LS project page
NILS project page

Output from project: 2008_009 (SLS), 30086 (ONS LS), 028 (NILS)

Selective migration and neighbourhood change: an exploratory analysis of data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study

Bailey, N., Kearns, A. & Livingston, M. (2008) British Society for Population Studies Annual Conference, University of Manchester, UK, 10 - 12 September 2008 [SLS]

Other information:
Abstract:

The paper examines the role of selective migration in driving neighbourhood change, focussing in particular on the extent to which migration acts to reinforce or deepen patterns of spatial segregation. This is an area of great policy relevance given concerns about the impacts that concentrations of deprivation have on individual welfare. Governments in the UK and elsewhere have long sought to intervene in deprived neighbourhoods to try to manage the consequences of segregation, yet there is a concern that these efforts may be undermined by selective migration ("those who get on, get out"). Recent analyses of 2001 Census migration data suggest these concerns may have been overstated (Bailey and Livingston, 2008). This paper extends that work in a number of ways: by exploring migration and neighbourhood change on a wider range of dimensions related to socio-economic status; by taking a longer-term perspective; and by examining in situ change (change for non-migrants) alongside selective migration. The paper takes advantage of the new data available through the Scottish Longitudinal Study. Analyses are carried out at the level of the CATTs (Continuous Areas Through Time). Hypotheses include the following: that spatial segregation rises over the period 1991-2001 on each of dimensions examined; that selective migration acts to reinforce segregation on each of the dimensions; and that selective migration is the dominant process driving area change (i.e. that any improvements that deprived areas see through in situ change are more than offset by net migration effects on average).

Available online: Link
Output from project: 2007_015

Untangling the mix – a longitudinal investigation into tenure mix and employment outcomes in Scotland

Manley, D. & van Ham, M. (2008) Scottish Government, Firm Analytical Foundations Conference, Edinburgh, UK. [SLS]

Available online: Link
Download output document: Presentation slides (PDF 316KB)
Output from project: 2007_006

Labour Market Outcomes for People in Mixed neighbourhoods – Untangling the mix

Manley, D. & van Ham, M. (2008) European Network for Housing Research (ENHR), Dublin, Ireland, 6 - 9 July 2008 [SLS]

Output from project: 2007_005

The value of routinely collected administrative data in the England and Wales and Scottish longitudinal studies

Boyle, P. (2006) Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) annual conference, Belfast, UK. [SLS][ONS LS]

Longitudinal data from the UK censuses

Boyle, P. (2006) Population Geography Research Group 3rd International Conference on Population Geographies, University of Liverpool, UK, 19 - 21 June 2006 [SLS]

Other information: Invited Plenary Talk

The Scottish Longitudinal Study. Census: present and future

Boyle, P. (2005) University of Leicester. [SLS]

Linking census data through time for population research

Boyle, P., Gayle, V., Norman, P. & Exeter, D. (2004) Geobusiness Annual Conference, London, UK, 14 October 2004 [SLS]

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